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Smithsonian 



Submitted to the Committees on Appropriations 
Congress of the United States 



Smithsonian Institution 

Fiscal Year 2009 
Budget Justification to Congress 



February 2008 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request to Congress 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 

Overview 1 

FY 2009 Budget Request Summary 7 

SALARIES AND EXPENSES 

Summary of FY 2009 Change 11 

Mandatory Costs 

Salary and Related Costs 15 

Utilities, Rent, Communications, and Other 17 

Summary of Program Changes 23 

No-Year and Two-Year Funding 25 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and 

Program Category 26 

MUSEUMS AND RESEARCH CENTERS 
American Museums 

Anacostia Community Museum 31 

Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 36 

National Museum of African American History and Culture 40 

National Museum of American History, Behring Center 48 

National Postal Museum 54 

National Museum of the American Indian 58 

Art Museums 

Archives of American Art 71 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery of Art 77 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 83 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 89 

National Museum of African Art 95 

National Portrait Gallery 101 

Smithsonian American Art Museum 107 

Science Museums and Research Centers 

National Air and Space Museum 113 

National Museum of Natural History 1 1 9 

National Zoological Park 131 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 141 

Museum Conservation Institute 147 

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 152 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 157 



PROGRAM SUPPORT AND OUTREACH 

Outreach 165 

Communications 173 

Institution- wide Programs 1 77 

Office of Exhibits Central 184 

Major Scientific Instrumentation 187 

Museum Support Center 192 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 194 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 1 98 

ADMINISTRATION 203 

INSPECTOR GENERAL 212 

FACILITIES SERVICES 

Facilities Maintenance 216 

Facilities Operations, Security, and Support 222 

FACILITIES CAPITAL 

Overview 227 

Summary Table 231 

Revitalization 232 

Museum Support Center (Pod 3) 234 

National Museum of Natural History 236 

National Zoological Park 238 

Suitland Support Facility (Greenhouses) 243 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Gamboa) 245 

Other Revitalization Projects 248 

Construction Supervision and Administration 251 

Facilities Planning and Design 252 

LEGACY FUND 253 

APPENDIX 

Organization Chart 255 

Visitation Chart 256 

Trust Funds Summary 257 

Appropriation Language and Citations 259 

Adjustments to FY 2008 Funding 268 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION IN THE 21st CENTURY 

For more than 161 years, the Smithsonian Institution has remained true 
to its mission, "the increase and diffusion of knowledge." In that time, it has 
become the largest museum and research complex in the world, the most 
respected provider of museum experiences supported by authoritative 
scholarship, and an international leader in scientific research and exploration. 

Historian David McCullough has described the Smithsonian as a 
"storehouse of ideas." It is indeed that and much more. With 19 museums, 
numerous research centers, and the National Zoo, the Smithsonian stands out 
as a unique entity, a leader in science, history, art, and culture. As an 
international institution, it offers the world a picture of America and America a 
picture of the world. At the same time, the Smithsonian's pioneering science 
initiatives and innovative education and outreach programs continue to advance 
both "the increase and diffusion of knowledge." 

The Smithsonian Institution's collections, containing more than 137 
million objects and documents, are staggering in their breadth and depth. 
Consequently, by a large margin, more people visit the Institution than any other 
museum complex on Earth. 

Although English scientist James Smithson's bequest launched the 
Smithsonian in 1846, the debate and counsel of the Congress helped to shape 
the Institution from day one — and does so to this day. In fact, the Smithsonian 
simply would not be able to function without the generous support of the 
Administration and the Congress. 

This support takes many forms, including oversight. In 2007, the 
Smithsonian moved forward with a vigorous and thorough reform agenda. The 
Institution's management and staff rallied around the Board of Regents' efforts 
to improve governance. As a result, an aggressive effort to implement the 
reform recommendations of the Board of Regents is well under way. 

The Institution's overall goal is much more than to fix past problems; the 
goal is to become a leader in good governance. Throughout this transition 
period, thanks to its dedicated staff and volunteers, the vital work of the 
Smithsonian has continued. 

The Smithsonian takes its task of serving the American public very 
seriously, and last year we kept that commitment. During fiscal year 2007, 
millions of Americans enjoyed the continuing success of all our museums, 
including the National Air and Space Museum's (NASM) Steven F. Udvar-Hazy 
Center in Chantilly, Virginia, the National Museum of the American Indian on the 
National Mall, and, in the renovated, historic Patent Office Building, the Donald 



W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture, which is home to the 
National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. 

Smithsonian collections are a national and global resource that millions of 
visitors and researchers access each year to explore subjects from aeronautics 
to zoology. Through its collections, the Smithsonian presents the astonishing 
record of American and international artistic, historical, cultural, and scientific 
achievement, with a scope and depth that no other institution in the world can 
match. Collections are acquired from tropical rainforests, archaeological sites, 
everyday life, the depths of the oceans, and the heavens above. Currently, 
Smithsonian museum collections total more than 137 million objects and 
specimens. In addition, the holdings of the Smithsonian include 1.5 million 
library volumes, including rare books, and 89,000 cubic feet of archives. 

Researchers from the Smithsonian and from around the world use these 
collections to pose new questions and advance our knowledge. In turn, our 
educational efforts touch every part of America through traveling exhibitions, 
affiliate museums, curriculum guides, Web outreach, and much more. 

More than 13 million visitors have come to the Smithsonian's National Zoo 
to see our giant pandas, Mei Xiang and Tian Tian, and their cub, Tai Shan. More 
people are also coming to see our new Asia Trail — home to seven different 
Asian species. Work on Asia Trail II, Elephant Trails, which is a new home for our 
Asian elephants, is under way. Scientists at the Zoo have been conducting 
research on the reproductive biology of endangered species. The results of their 
work have enabled the successful reproduction of animals such as the golden lion 
tamarin, the black-footed ferret, and the giant panda, bringing some of these 
animals back from the brink of extinction. In addition, scientists at the Zoo have 
monitored the sharp decline of bird populations caused by the West Nile Virus 
across the eastern United States. 

Smithsonian astronomers at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
(SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, study the origin, evolution, and ultimate 
fate of the universe. They continue to make breakthrough discoveries, finding 
new planets outside our solar system. Last September they discovered a new 
planet unlike any other in that it is the biggest planet ever found inside or 
outside our solar system, yet has the least density of any planet ever seen. It is 
bigger than Jupiter but lighter than a giant ball of cork — it is called a "puffy" 
planet. 

Back on Earth, visitors continue to flock to Smithsonian attractions such 
as the annual Folklife Festival on the National Mall; the National Museum of 
Natural History's (NMNH) Hall of Mammals; and the NASM exhibition, America 
by Air. Although the National Museum of American History (NMAH) is closed 
for an extensive revitalization, its work continues. Research, traveling 
exhibitions, and public programs throughout the country are planned, and a 

2 



special exhibition of more than 150 iconic objects, Treasures of American 
History, has been installed at NASM. 

In addition, the NMNH has announced a partnership to launch an online 
Encyclopedia of Life, with a webpage for each of the 1 .8 million known species 
of animals, plants, and other life forms. The database will be configurable for 
everyone from students across America to scientists, policy makers, and the 
general public worldwide. 

Scientific expertise and leadership are at the core of the Smithsonian's 
reputation for excellence and central to achieving our mission to promote the 
"increase and diffusion of knowledge." The Smithsonian's more than 500 
scientists have pioneered efforts to improve our understanding of how the Earth 
and similar planets were formed, and they are world leaders in the fields of 
anthropology, ethnology, and archaeology, including the fields of forensic 
anthropology and human origins. The Institution is also internationally 
recognized for its expertise in systematics, paleobiology, ecology, and biological 
conservation, and is uniquely situated to explore the loss of biodiversity and 
respond to governmental initiatives on climate change, tropical forest 
conservation, control of invasive species, and protection of endangered species. 

Our large and diverse collections of art continue to attract numerous 
visitors. Some of the greatest works of art in this country — and the world — 
are at the Smithsonian. The Smithsonian's art museums, the Freer, the Sackler, 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the National Museum of African 
Art, the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York City, the 
Smithsonian American Art Museum and its Renwick Gallery, and the National 
Portrait Gallery, collectively, are the fourth most visited art complex in the 
United States. Hundreds of thousands of visitors came to see Encompassing the 
Globe: Portugal and the World in the 16th and 17th Centuries when it was on 
view at the Sackler Gallery and the National Museum of African Art. Many 
global partners helped put more than 260 extraordinary objects on display in 
this beautiful exhibition on art, history, economics, and politics. 

In the context of public service, the reach of everything the Smithsonian 
does — in both the research and the museum activities — is expanded 
exponentially by websites and education and outreach programs. The 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) is the largest 
traveling exhibition service in the world, and reaches roughly five million people 
throughout the nation every year. In 2007, SITES traveled to more than 400 
communities in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Guam. 
These exhibitions reach learners of all ages in museums, schools, libraries, 
community centers, veterans' halls, municipal buildings, transportation 
terminals — wherever the public is. 



The Smithsonian's electronic outreach has been equally impressive. Our 
Web presence has expanded dramatically in a short period of time and several 
of our websites have won awards for their content and design. Six years ago, 
we had half as many visits to our websites as physical visits to our museums. 
Now, visitation on the Web is more than 750 percent of our museum visitation, 
with more than 180 million visits to our various websites. 

Furthermore, we are engaged in a major national outreach program. We 
now have 159 affiliates in 39 states, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Washington, 
DC. To bring the Smithsonian's collections to the American public, we lend 
impressive objects to these local affiliates (in addition to the many artifacts that 
tour nationwide as part of the SITES exhibits). 

The establishment of Smithsonian Networks, a joint venture with CBS- 
Showtime, will expand how the Institution shares its vast collections with the 
American people and educates the public about the richness of Smithsonian- 
sponsored discoveries in science, the arts, and the humanities. 

The Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies (SCEMS) is 
collaborating with the Council of Chief State School Officers to create new 
ways for teachers and students to enrich classroom instruction by accessing 
Smithsonian collections and talking to experts. SCEMS, as part of the 
collaboration, leads Sl-based professional development opportunities for the 
State Teachers of the Year. 

One of the biggest obstacles we face in continuing this important work is 
resolving our facilities revitalization and maintenance problems which directly 
affect our mission. This issue concerns not only the buildings themselves, some 
of which are priceless national treasures in their own right, but more importantly 
the fact that the buildings enable us to educate the public, exhibit and house the 
national collections, and create the ideal museum experience for our visitors. 
Without the proper facilities in safe operating order, none of this is possible. 

Today the Smithsonian owns or leases more than 700 buildings and other 
structures in the District of Columbia, seven states, Panama, Belize, and Chile, 
about 9.9 million square feet of owned space and 1 .4 million square feet of 
leased space with an estimated replacement value of more than $5.3 billion. 
Some of these buildings are new, some are 1 50 years old, many are decades 
old, and more than half are more than 25 years old. It is an expensive, 
challenging task to care for these facilities and keep our staff and visitors safe 
— especially in a post-9/1 1 world where security is of paramount concern. 

Both the National Academy of Public Administration and the Government 
Accountability Office (GAO) have looked into this matter and underscored its 
importance, with the GAO saying $2.5 billion is required to fix and maintain the 
Institution's facilities in the coming years. With the continued support of the 



Administration and Congress, the Institution is making progress in addressing 
this serious issue. 

In spite of the work that must be done to repair our infrastructure, we 
want to continue with our ambitious plans to revitalize Smithsonian facilities in 
ways that strengthen both our scientific research as well as our education and 
outreach efforts. Accordingly, the largest multi-disciplinary project ever 
undertaken by the Smithsonian Institution is under way — the $78 million 
Ocean Science Initiative at the National Museum of Natural History, in 
collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The 
project includes a new exhibition space, the Ocean Hall (opening in 2008), a 
newly endowed Chair for Marine Science research, educational outreach, a new 
Ocean Web portal, and additional funding for research. 

The National Museum of American History will reopen in 2008. 
Implementing recommendations made by its Blue Ribbon Commission, this 
Museum will have a new home for the Star-Spangled Banner and a completely 
redesigned central core. 

Farther into the future, the Smithsonian's 19th museum, the National 
Museum of African American History and Culture, will open on the National Mall. 
Part of that Museum is up and running right now, with a website, exhibition, and 
special programs. As directed by Congress, funding for construction of the 
Museum will be half private and half federal. 

The growth of the Internet and related technologies enable new possibilities 
for sharing the Smithsonian's knowledge from our collections and research in ways 
never envisioned when the Institution was first created. Over the next several 
decades, the Institution proposes committing the intellectual and financial 
resources necessary to create a digital Smithsonian which would provide unlimited 
access to the national collections and research via channels previously 
unimaginable on such a grand scale. A digital Smithsonian would contribute to 
improving the Institution's stewardship and preservation of its collections. 

The Smithsonian agenda is ambitious but focused. The Institution's 
leadership team is committed to a balanced approach that stresses not only the 
revitalization of the Smithsonian's physical infrastructure, but also important 
scientific, educational, and collections care programs. Also, to respond to the 
recommendations of the Board of Regents' new permanent Governance and 
Nominating Committee, the Institution is requesting funds to support the new 
governing practices that were developed to strengthen the Board's oversight of 
the Institution. In addition, to better position the Institution to tell its story, the 
Smithsonian has packaged the priorities of security, facilities, and collections care 
under a new heading, Stewardship of National Treasures. Given its successes, 
concerns, and budget realities, the Institution's priorities are: 



• Mandatory funding requirements, such as legally mandated federal 
compensation increases; contractually obligated rental increases; rent 
requirements; and leases for collections storage space 

• Board of Regents' Governance and Nominating Committee support to 
strengthen oversight of the Institution, including additional staff for the 
Inspector General and the Chief Financial Officer 

• Stewardship of National Treasures, which includes: 

o Security guards to meet minimum security staffing needs; increased 
security costs at the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City; 
and measures to provide employee and contractor security screening 

o Physical facilities maintenance and revitalization, as recommended by 
the National Academy of Public Administration's 2001 report and 
reinforced by the Government Accountability Office's 2005 and 2007 
reports 

o Collections care, including improved conservation, preservation, 
storage, documentation, and accessibility of the national 
collections 

o Information technology infrastructure needs 

The Smithsonian is a public trust; it belongs to every American, young 
and old. Tens of millions of students have come to the nation's capital and 
experienced the Smithsonian. Through the Internet and our expansive education 
and outreach programs, millions more have experienced the Smithsonian in their 
own hometowns. This younger audience is America's cultural and scientific 
future. We inspire the next generation of astronauts, scientists, artists, 
explorers, and historians. Once they experience the Smithsonian, this great 
Institution is in their hearts and minds for life. 

The Smithsonian Institution faces significant challenges if it is to continue 
serving the public in an exemplary manner, with both engaging, modern 
exhibitions backed by authoritative scholarship and groundbreaking scientific 
research and exploration. What follows is our plan to efficiently and effectively 
meet these challenges. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
FY 2009 BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY 



Account 


FY 2008 
Appropriation 


FY 2009 
Request 


Salaries and Expenses 
Facilities Capital 
Legacy Fund 
Total 


$562,434,000 

105,429,000 

14,766,000 

$682,629,000 


$588,400,000 

128,000,000 



$716,400,000 



For FY 2009, the Smithsonian's request to fund essential operating 
expenses and revitalization of the Institution's physical infrastructure is 
$716.4 million. It includes $588.4 million for Salaries and Expenses (S&E) and 
$128 million for Facilities Capital. A detailed summary is provided in the table at 
the end of this section. 

SALARIES AND EXPENSES 

MANDATORY INCREASES 

• Salaries and Related Costs (+ $10,878,000) — The request funds a 
portion of the FY 2009 (2.9%) and the FY 2008 (4.49%) pay raises. It 
also includes an increase for Workers' Compensation required in FY 2009. 

• Non-pay Mandatory Items (+ $5,557,000) — The Institution requests 
an increase to its utilities, rent, communications, and other mandatory 
operating costs. Details are provided in the S&E section. 

GOVERNANCE 

• Governance Costs (+ $364,000) — The Institution requests an increase 
to support the Board of Regents' Governance and Nominating 
Committee's efforts to strengthen oversight of the Institution. 

STEWARDSHIP OF NATIONAL TREASURES 



Security/Anti-Terrorism (+ $2,040,000) — The Institution is requesting 
funds for security guards to meet minimum security staffing needs for the 
Donald W. Reynolds Center and the National Museum of the American 
Indian (NMAI) facilities; for additional security requirements at the NMAI 
George Gustav Heye Center in New York City; and for employee and 
contractor security screening for units outside of the Washington, DC 
area, as recommended by the Inspector General. 



• Facilities Requirements (+ $16,775,000) — This S&E request supports 
improvements to the Smithsonian's facilities maintenance needs, as 
recommended by the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) 
and reviewed by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). The 
maintenance increase brings the Institution maintenance total to more 
than $69 million. The increase is intended to raise the Smithsonian's 
score under the industry building maintenance standard to approach level 
2 of 5, with a goal to eventually achieve level 2 (on a 1 to 5 rating scale 
with 1 being the highest). 

• Collections Care (+ $1,300,000) — This request provides resources to 
strategically improve collections care by supporting state-of-the-art 
collections management systems; enhancing conservation, storage, and 
preservation; and addressing the highest priority collections care needs 
throughout the Institution. This request also includes resources for animal 
welfare and safety at the National Zoo. 

• Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure (+ $274,000) — This request 
provides funds for improvements to the Institution's IT architecture, 
specifically for secure wireless capability. 

PROGRAM REDUCTIONS 

• Federal funding for the Institution's public programs, exhibitions, and 
research is reduced by -$11,222,000. This funding is redirected to the 
facilities maintenance program. The Institution will seek to raise private 
funds to offset this reduction. 



FACILITIES CAPITAL PROGRAM 

The request for the Facilities Capital Program ($128 million) is critical to 
improve the deteriorating condition of some of the oldest buildings and maintain 
the current condition of other facilities through systematic renewal and repair. 
Numerous independent entities have highlighted the poor state of Smithsonian 
facilities, including the Government Accountability Office's 2007 report, which 
acknowledged the Smithsonian's estimate of $2.5 billion needed to fix and 
maintain Smithsonian facilities. For FY 2009, this request continues major 
revitalization work at the National Zoological Park ($21 .1 million) and the 
National Museum of Natural History ($25.7 million); and the renovation of the 
Museum Support Center Pod 3 to provide for essential collection storage space 
($15 million). It also includes funds to replace the Institution's greenhouses 
($8.2 million); begin the replacement of laboratory facilities at the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute facility in Gamboa ($3 million); and support other 
revitalization work ($31 .5 million). In addition, the requested increase funds the 
planning and design of future projects ($23.5 million, which includes $1 million 
for security and anti-terrorism and $3 million for the National Museum of African 
American History and Culture [NMAAHC]). Specific details are provided in the 
Facilities Capital section of this request. 

LEGACY FUND PROGRAM 

In the FY 2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, Congress 
appropriated $15 million, before the rescission, for a new account to address 
the Institution's backlog of major repairs and restoration of its facilities. The 
Fund has been designed as a public-private partnership, where each public 
dollar provided must be matched by twice that amount in private 
contributions before the full $15 million is made available for obligation. The 
Smithsonian is developing plans to raise the matching private funds. No 
funds are requested for FY 2009. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FY 2009 BUDGET REQUEST 

BY APPROPRIATION ACCOUNT 



SALARIES AND EXPENSES 


FTEs 


Amount 


FY 2008 Appropriation 


4,291 


$562,434,000 


FY 2009 Changes 






Mandatory Increases 






Salaries and Related Costs 




10,878,000 


Utilities, Rent, Communications, and Other 




5,557,000 


Governance 






Required staff increases 


5 


364,000 


Stewardship of National Treasures 


• 




Security/Anti- Terrorism 


40 


2,040,000 


Facilities Requirements 






Improve Building Maintenance 


52 


16,775,000 


Collections Care 






Collections Care Initiatives 




1,000,000 


National Zoo (Animal Welfare) 


3 


300,000 


Information Technology Infrastructure 






Secure Wireless 


1 


274,000 


Program Reductions 






Public Programs Reductions 


-45 


-4,400,000 


Exhibitions Reductions 


-51 


-4,900,000 


Research Reductions 


-20 


-1,922,000 


FY 2009 Salaries and Expenses Request 


4,276 


$588,400,000 



FACILITIES CAPITAL 


FTEs 


Amount 


FTEs in Base 
Revitalization: 

National Zoological Park 
National Museum of Natural History 
Museum Support Center (Pod 3) 
Replace Greenhouses 
Tropical Research, Gamboa Development 
Other Revitalization Projects 
Facilities Planning and Design 


38 

10 


21,100,000 
25,700,000 
15,000,000 
8,200,000 
3,000,000 
31,500,000 
23,500,000 


FY 2009 Facilities Capital Request 


48 


$128,000,000 








FY 2009 REQUEST, ALL ACCOUNTS 


4,324 


$716,400,000 



10 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
SALARIES AND EXPENSES 

Summary of FY 2009 Change 



FTEs Amount 

FY 2008 Appropriation (pre-rescission) $571,347,000 

FY 2008 1.56% Rescission -8,913,000 

Total FY 2008 Appropriation 4,291 $562,434,000 

FY 2009 Changes 

Mandatory Increases 

Legislated Pay Raises and Workers' Compensation 10,878,000 

Utilities, Postage, Rent, Communications, & Other 5,557,000 

Total Mandatory Increases 16,435,000 



Program Changes 

Governance 5 364,000 

Stewardship of National Treasures 96 20,389,000 

Program Reductions -116 -1 1,222,000 

Total Program Changes 9,531,000 



FY 2009 Budget Request 4,276 $588,400,000 



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13 



14 



SALARIES AND EXPENSES 



FY 2007 Appropriation 


$536,295,000 


FY 2008 Appropriation 


$562,434,000 


FY 2009 Estimate 


$588,400,000 



For FY 2009, the Institution requests $588.4 million in the Salaries 
and Expenses account. Within the increase requested, approximately 63 
percent is attributable to mandatory costs for sustaining base operations 
(e.g., pay, utilities, rent, etc.), and the remainder is for priority program 
requirements within the Institution. 

SALARY AND RELATED COSTS ( + $10,878,000) - The Institution 
requests an increase of $10,878,000 for higher projected salary and benefits 
costs in FY 2009, as described below. This request funds a portion of the 
FY 2008 and FY 2009 pay raises and resources to cover the increase in 
Workers' Compensation costs. The Institution will absorb the additional 
workday in FY 2009 ($1,513,000), the unfunded portion of the FY 2008 pay 
raise (4.49% vs. 3.0% - $738,000), and $3,187,000 of the annualized 2008 
pay raise (1/4 year at 4.49%). The following is a line-item display of the pay 
amounts requested: 

Salary and Related Costs: Requested 

• Annualized 2008 pay raise (1/4 year at 4.49%) $952,000 

• 2009 pay raise (3/4 year at 2.9%) 9,742,000 

• Workers' Compensation 184,000 
Total $10,878,000 

• Annualization of 2008 Pay Raise ( + $4,139,000/+ $952,000) — The 

annualization of the anticipated 4.49 percent January 2008 pay raise for 
the first quarter of FY 2009. The requested amount partially funds this 
annualized requirement. 

• Proposed 2009 Pay Raise ( + $9,742,000) - The anticipated 2.9 percent 
January 2009 pay raise for three-quarters of a year. The requested 
amount fully funds the required amount. 

• Workers' Compensation ( + $184,000) — Supports the provisions of 
Section 8147(b) of Title 5, United States Code, as amended by Public 
Law 94-273. The Workers' Compensation bill for FY 2009 is 
$3,405,000, based on actual costs incurred from July 1, 2006 through 
June 30, 2007, as provided by the U.S. Department of Labor. With an 
amount of $3,221,000 in its FY 2008 base, the Institution requires an 
increase of $184,000 for FY 2009. 



15 



• The Institution will absorb the $5.4 million pay shortfall by forgoing the 
purchase of replacement vehicles and desktop computers and conducting a 
hiring freeze. 



FY 2009 Increased Pay Costs 

(Dollars in Thousands) 



Line Item 


FY 2008 
Annualization 


FY 2009 
Pay Raise 


Total 


Anacostia Community Museum 


4 


36 


40 


Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 


4 


41 


45 


National Museum of African American History and Culture 


5 


259 


264 


National Museum of American History, Behring Center 


51 


498 


549 


National Postal Museum 


2 


18 


20 


National Museum of the American Indian 


58 


578 


636 


Archives of American Art 


5 


49 


54 


Arthur M. Sackler Gallery/Freer Gallery of Art 


13 


137 


150 


Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 


7 


75 


82 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 


9 


92 


101 


National Museum of African Art 


8 


74 


82 


National Portrait Gallery 


14 


143 


157 


Smithsonian American Art Museum 


22 


236 


258 


National Air and Space Museum 


42 


428 


470 


National Museum of Natural History 


106 


1,053 


1,159 


National Zoological Park 


47 


499 


546 


Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 


39 


386 


425 


Museum Conservation Institute 


6 


58 


64 


Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 


8 


77 


85 


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


25 


247 


272 


Outreach 


16 


165 


181 


Communications 


4 


51 


55 


Office of Exhibits Central 


7 


72 


79 


Museum Support Center 


4 


38 


42 


Smithsonian Institution Archives 


5 


64 


69 


Smithsonian Institution Libraries 


19 


192 


211 


Administration 


80 


865 


945 


Inspector General 


5 


52 


57 


Facilities Maintenance 


98 


854 


952 


Facilities Operations, Security, and Support 


239 


2,405 


2,644 


Total Increased Pay Costs 


952 


9,742 


10,694 



16 



UTILITIES, POSTAGE, RENT, COMMUNICATIONS, AND OTHER 
MANDATORY COSTS ( + $5,557,000) - For FY 2009, the Institution 
requests a net increase of $5,557,000 for utilities, postage, rent, and 
communications costs for increases in consumption, rate and inflation, as wel 
as project needs. The following table displays FY 2007 actuals through 
FY 2009 estimates. Detailed explanations of each line item follow. 



Federal Utilities, Postage, Rent, Communications, and 

Other Mandatory Costs 

FY 2007-FY 2009 

(Dollars in Thousands) 





FY 2007 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 






Actuals 


Approp. 


Estimate 


Change 


Utilities: 










Electricity 


18,578 


19,658 


19,471 


-187 


Chilled Water 


5,802 


6,344 


6,811 


467 


Steam 


8,031 


9,492 


8,166 


-1,326 


Natural Gas 


4,109 


4,839 


4,346 


-493 


DC Gov't Water/Sewer 


2,855 


2,753 


6,021 


3,268 


Other Water and Fuel 


675 


664 


756 


92 


Subtotal, Utilities 


40,050 


43,750 


45,571 


1,821 


Postage 


1,594 


1,708 


1,708 





Rent: 










Central 
Unit 


18,013 


24,007 


23,957 
1,520 


-50 
1,520 


liv.. .ii... 




Subtotal, Rent 


18,013 


24,007 


25,477 


1,470 


Communications 


9,664 


9,930 


11,066 


1,136 


Other 






1,130 


1,130 


Total 


69,321 


79,395 


84,952 


5,557 



UTILITIES ( + $1,821,000) — The request includes increases for the following: 

o Electricity (-$187,000) — Electricity is used to operate the 
Smithsonian's large infrastructure. The major consumer of electricity is 
the air-conditioning system that cools the Smithsonian facilities, ensuring 
the comfort of staff and visitors and providing essential climate control to 
protect the priceless National Collections. The net estimate includes an 
anticipated 2.2 percent rate increase on all electricity accounts in 
FY 2009 ( + $504,000); offset by reductions to FY 2008 estimates for 
lower projected rate increases for Virginia facilities in FY 2008 
(-$665,000) and anticipated increased reimbursements (-$26,000). 



17 



o Chilled Water ( + $467,000) — Chilled water costs represent both the 
annual cost of the fixed, 1 5-year debt service for the joint project 
between the General Services Administration (GSA) and the Smithsonian 
to supply chilled water from GSA's central plant to the Smithsonian's 
south Mall facilities and the variable cost for actual chilled water usage. 
The FY 2009 request includes an anticipated 2.2 percent rate increase in 
FY 2009 ( + $61,000) and unanticipated price increases above the 
FY 2007 and FY 2008 estimated levels ( + $715,000). Offsetting the 
increases are savings from a Memorandum of Agreement which 
temporarily assigned Smithsonian surplus capacity at the GSA chilled 
water plant to the National Gallery of Art (-$130,000) and anticipated 
increased reimbursements (-$179,000). 

o Steam (-$1,326,000) — The Smithsonian uses steam for heating and 
humidification, and to produce hot water in facilities on the Mall and in 
New York City. The net estimate includes an anticipated 2.6 percent rate 
increase in FY 2009 ( + $231,000), reduction to the steam estimate 
included in the FY 2008 Budget Justification to Congress for an 
anticipated five percent GSA price increase in FY 2008 that will not 
transpire (-$460,000), further savings from decreases in consumption due 
to conservation efforts that began in late FY 2006 (-$1,084,000), and 
anticipated increased reimbursements (-$13,000). 

o Natural Gas (-$493,000) — The Smithsonian uses natural gas for 
heating and generating steam. The net estimate includes an anticipated 
2.2 percent rate increase in FY 2009 ( + $98,000); savings from actual 
FY 2007 and anticipated FY 2008 price increases that were less than 
projected ($589,000), and anticipated increased reimbursements 
(-$2,000). 

o DC Water and Sewer ( + $3,268,000) — Funds provide for both water 
and sewer services provided by the District of Columbia Water and Sewer 
Authority (DCWSA). The request includes an increase of $3,274,000 to 
the budget estimate to reflect rate and billing adjustments identified by the 
DCWSA and a billing adjustment of $1.5 million for under-billed estimates 
in FY 2005 due to a faulty meter at the National Zoological Park. Offsetting 
the increases are anticipated increased reimbursements (-$6,000). 

o Other Water and Fuel ( + $92,000) — Funds provide water for facilities 
outside of Washington, DC, and fuel oil used in dual-fuel boilers, as a 
backup to natural gas. The net request provides for an anticipated 2.2 
percent rate increase for fuel oil in FY 2009 and unanticipated fuel-oil rate 
increases above the FY 2006 appropriated level ( + $25,000). In addition, 
the request provides for an anticipated 8 percent rate increase for water 



18 



outside of the Washington, DC area in FY 2009 and unanticipated rate 
increases above the FY 2007 estimated levels ( + $67,000). 

• POSTAGE — Funds provide for all official domestic and international mail 
services. The Institution is not seeking an increase for postage in FY 2009. 

• RENT ( + $1,470,000) — The request includes a net increase for centrally 
funded lease requirements (-$50,000) and unit-funded, programmatic lease 
requirements ( + $ 1 ,520,000), as follows: 

o Central Rent (-$50,000) - The net increase provides ( + $1,750,000) 
additional base rent funds for leased office and storage space, which is 
offset by a reduction (-$1,800,000) for non-recurring costs in FY 2008. 
Details follow: 

Escalation ( + $884,000) — Provides for annual rent increases in 
accordance with the actual terms of current lease contracts. Among the 
contracts, the escalation rate for base rent averages between two and 
three percent, and operating and real estate taxes average eight percent. 

Capital Gallery ( + $373,000) - In its June 2007 report to the 
Governance and Nominating Committee, the Smithsonian's Board of 
Regents recommended that the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) 
relocate from leased space in Crystal City, Virginia to the District of 
Columbia to be closer to Smithsonian management. The OIG will relocate 
from 5,810 square feet of leased space in Crystal City, Virginia to 8,520 
square feet of leased space on the sixth floor of Capital Gallery East. The 
leased space will accommodate existing staff requirements and provide 
space for anticipated increases to staff levels. The 5,810 square feet of 
space vacated by the OIG will be apportioned to the Office of the 
Comptroller, the Office of Contracting, and the Office of the Treasurer as 
additional office space for anticipated staff increases. All move and 
relocation costs will be funded from the Smithsonian's existing federal 
base resources. 

Cluny Court ( + $270,000) — Provides six months of funding for a 
one-time lease extension of warehouse space in Springfield, Virginia, 
which houses the NMAH collections. The Smithsonian's plan to 
consolidate leases includes relocating NMAH collections to a leased 
facility at 3400 Pennsy Drive in Landover, Maryland. The relocation of 
Smithsonian tenants to the Pennsy Drive facility is planned to occur by 
August 2008, with complete occupancy by the end of September 2008. 
However, the relocation time frame conflicts with the planned reopening 
of the NMAH in the summer of 2008. To minimize disruption to NMAH 



19 



staff focusing on reopening activities, the requested funds will enable 
NMAH to relocate its collections to Pennsy Drive in FY 2009. The Cluny 
Court lease expires in March 2008 and a one-year lease extension is 
necessary to provide for a smooth, uninterrupted transition. Base central 
rent funds will cover lease costs in FY 2008, but funding for six months 
of lease costs is needed for FY 2009 when these base funds are 
redirected for the Pennsy Drive facility lease costs. 

Victor Building ( + $125,000) — Provides funds to cover annual lease 
costs for an additional 3,696 square feet of leased space on the 
Concourse level of the Victor Building in Washington, DC. The leased 
space provides additional, critical collections storage for the Smithsonian 
American Art Museum and National Portrait Gallery. 

Crystal City ( + $98,000) — Provides funds to cover annual lease costs 
for 5,035 square feet of leased storage space at 1851 S. Bell Street, 
Arlington, Virginia, to store the Smithsonian's financial documents from 
the Office of Contracting and the Office of the Comptroller. The leased 
space replaces valuable storage space lost when the Victor Building was 
sold and provides a less costly alternative for storing documents close to 
the offices located in nearby leased space in Crystal City. 

1111 North Capitol Street (-$1 ,800,000) — Returns one-time 
FY 2008 move and fit-out funds for relocation of staff, storage, and 
workshop activities from leased space at 1111 North Capitol Street to 
leased space at 3400 Pennsy Drive in Landover, Maryland. 

o Unit-Funded Rent (+$1,520,000) — Justified here, but included in the 
following museums' line items, are unit-funded rent increases that are 
necessary to support Smithsonian programs. The increases will provide 
for collections storage space, as follows: 

National Museum of American History (NMAH) ( + $609,000) — 
Provides initial base rent funds for leased warehouse space on Cinderbed 
Road in Newington, Virginia. The leased space houses collections 
displaced by the ongoing revitalization of the NMAH, Behring Center, and 
the recently acquired CIGNA insurance company collection of firefighting 
and maritime objects. The requested resources will enable the Museum to 
continue paying the lease for collections stored at the Cinderbed Road 
facility and at the future Pennsy Drive facility, thus ensuring continued 
care and storage of the Museum's collections. 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum (CHNDM) ( + $539,000) - 
Provides the balance of funds needed to cover the annual costs of leased 



20 



space in New York or New Jersey, to relocate CHNDM's collections, as 
well as library and conservation laboratories. In FY 2008, CHNDM will 
undergo a privately funded $42 million renovation to increase exhibition 
space. Master plans include an off-site facility that will provide space for 
collections and library storage, and a conservation laboratory. The 
FY 2008 appropriation includes $240,000 for one-half of the annual lease 
costs for an estimated 15,000 square feet of storage space. CHNDM 
space requirements subsequently increased to 21,000 square feet. The 
requested $539,000 will provide the remaining balance of estimated 
annual lease costs ($779,000), thus enabling CHNDM to expand 
exhibition space and library reading rooms at the Museum. 

National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) 
( + $372,000) — Provides for 1 5,000 square feet of leased space at the 
Pennsy Drive facility for storage and processing of NMAAHC collections. 
As NMAAHC moves ahead with plans and operations geared to the 
opening of the Museum on the Mall, it is crucial that NMAAHC have the 
resources it needs to provide adequate and appropriate space to maintain 
the planned collections. The Smithsonian's space plans for the Pennsy 
Drive facility include museum-standard storage space to house the 
expanding collection activities and processing requirements of the 
Museum ($362,000). The requested funds also support an annual rent 
increase of $10,000 for NMAAHC office space in accordance with the 
actual terms of the current lease contract. Resources will provide for an 
anticipated 3 percent escalation above FY 2008 estimates for the 
NMAAHC leased space at Capital Gallery in Washington, DC. 

• COMMUNICATIONS ( + $1,136,000) — The communications base 
supports operations, maintenance, and equipment for the Institution's 
voice and data telecommunications requirements. The requested increase 
provides for the following: 

o ( + $429,000) for continuing Institution-wide migration of outdated 
telephone systems to Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) systems at 
the National Zoological Park (NZP) and its Conservation and Research 
Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia, to include hardware, software, 
and contractor services. 
o ( + $258,000) for cost increases for leased communications lines to 
support Slnet. The increase provides for the redesign and upgrade of 
leased lines at the NZP-DC (to support the Zoological Information 
Management System project at the veterinary hospital) and at 
NZP-CRC (to support the National Ecological Observatory Network 
project). In addition, the request will provide for additional Internet 
bandwidth and distance requirements which result from the relocation 



21 



of the Smithsonian Institution Service Center at 1111 North Capitol 
Street to leased space at Pennsy Drive in Landover, Maryland. 

o ( + $1 86,000) for the addition of network switches and routers at the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the 
Institution's switch and router five-year replacement program. The first 
priority will be to replace 45 old switches and routers at SAO that are 
beyond their lifespan and represent a critical risk to SAO's network 
reliability. 

o ( + $263,000) for the critical replacement of the aging Citrix server, 
the key element in providing remote access to staff; to cover 
increased software maintenance costs; and to provide contractor 
system support. Remote access enables employees to work from 
home and conduct essential Smithsonian business during an 
emergency. 

OTHER MANDATORY COSTS ( + $1,130,000) - Provides needed 
resources for the following additional mandatory increases that are 
included in the Administration line item: 

o Administration ( + $60,000) - Enables the Office of the Chief 

Financial Officer to support the federal portion of the annual audit of 
the Smithsonian's financial statement ( + $25,000) and begin a three- 
year inventory cycle for all of the Institution's physical assets to 
support the insurance requirements of the Smithsonian ( + $35,000). 

o Administration ( + $220,000) — Enables the Office of Contracting to 
comply with federal requirements to provide procurement training 
classes to Smithsonian federal employees. 

o Administration ( + $850,000) — Enables the Office of the Chief 

Information Officer to provide the required annually recurring software 
licenses and maintenance for mission-critical collections information 
management and security management systems. In addition, this 
request provides funds for the Google license and access to its related 
Internet search engine. 



22 



SUMMARY OF PROGRAM CHANGES 

GOVERNANCE ( + $364,000, +5 FTEs) - This request supports the new 
governing practices that were developed to strengthen the Board of Regents' 
oversight of the Institution, to include additional staff for the Offices of the 
Inspector General (3 FTEs) and the Chief Financial Officer (2 FTEs). The 
request also includes a decrease of non-recurring, one-time FY 2008 costs 
for key human capital initiatives for the Smithsonian Human Capital 
Workforce Restructuring Plan (-$200,000). 

STEWARDSHIP OF NATIONAL TREASURES ( + $20,389,000, +96 FTEs) - 

This request provides the critical resources needed to support the security, 
facilities maintenance, collections care, and information technology (IT) 
infrastructure required for the Institution's stewardship responsibilities to 
preserve and protect the nation's treasures. The increases are as follows: 

• SECURITY/ANTI-TERRORISM ( + $2,040,000, +40 FTEs) - This request 
continues implementation of security improvements recommended by the 
Inspector General's evaluation of the Institution's employee and 
contractor security check and badging systems for units outside of the 
Washington, DC area ( + $400,000). This request provides funding to 
support minimal security staffing at the Institution's newest museums, 
the Donald W. Reynolds Center, and the National Museum of the 
American Indian ( + $2,004,000, 40 FTEs). It also provides funds to 
reimburse the Federal Protective Service for required security costs at the 
National Museum of the American Indian's George Gustav Heye Center in 
New York City ( + $406,000). The request also includes a decrease in 
one-time, non-recurring FY 2008 costs of the initial implementation of the 
mandates in the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12 (-$770,000). 

• FACILITIES MAINTENANCE ( + $16,775,000, + 52 FTEs) - This request 
supports critical improvements required for the Smithsonian's facilities 
program, as recommended by the National Academy of Public 
Administration. The Institution completed a Program Assessment Rating 
Tool (PART) evaluation of the Facilities Operations and Maintenance 
program in FY 2007 and received the highest PART rating score. This 
rating confirms the Government Accountability Office's conclusion that 
the Institution's facilities programs are efficiently managed and that 
additional resources would be effectively spent. Specifically, the 
resources will continue addressing the Institution's critical maintenance 
needs. With this increase, the total facilities maintenance funding would 
be more than $69 million. These resources are approaching the level to 
attain the minimum industry standard for maintenance of 2 percent of 
what it would cost to replace the Institution's buildings, or approximately 



23 



$100 million. However, these resources would enable the Smithsonian to 
approach the industry standard maintenance level 2, referred to as 
"Comprehensive Stewardship." Funding will support new facility 
maintenance requirements for the National Zoo, the Donald W. Reynolds 
Center Courtyard facility, and the Pod 5 Wet Collections Storage facility, 
as well as contract support for additional maintenance at the Institution's 
IT facility in Herndon, Virginia. Also, this funding will support security 
maintenance contracts for vital system monitoring, vehicle barrier 
systems, and locksmith services. 

COLLECTIONS CARE INITIATIVE ( + $1,300,000, +3 FTEs) - This 
request provides essential resources to meet collections care 
accreditation standards and provide for the highest priority collections 
management needs throughout the Institution. It provides state-of-the-art 
collections management systems, better access and improved storage, 
conservation, and the preservation resources needed to ensure the 
longevity and availability of the National Collections. The specific 
increases requested are as follows: 

o Collections Care and Preservation Fund ( + $1,000,000) — Provides 
resources for the Smithsonian to conduct an Institution-wide 
collections assessment program, preserve collections, and store them 
in safer conditions. The increase will improve collections care, mitigate 
collections deterioration, and address the highest priority collections 
care needs throughout the Institution. 
o National Zoo ( + $300,000, +3 FTEs) - Provides funding for 
increased animal welfare and staff safety in support of daily 
operations. The request provides for a veterinary technician, a 
biologist, and a safety specialist at the Zoo's facility at Front Royal, 
Virginia. These critical positions will enable the Zoo to be more 
responsive to emergencies and ensure the health and safety of its 
valuable "living" collection. 

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) INFRASTRUCTURE ( + $274,000, 
+ 1 FTE) — Provides funding to support a secure wireless network which 
is a mission-critical requirement for the museums, research centers, and 
administrative offices in connecting to the Institution's IT infrastructure. 
Maintaining the high standards of security will ensure a minimal risk of 
data breaches and loss of critical information. Funds will provide for 
maintenance of the secure wireless network infrastructure, as well as a 
wireless network specialist to oversee the secure wireless network 
operations. 



24 



PROGRAM REDUCTIONS (-$11,222,000) - Federal base funding for the 
Institution's public programs (-$4,400,000); exhibitions (-$4,900,000); and 
research (-$1,922,000) is reduced. This funding is redirected to the higher 
priority facilities maintenance program. The Institution will seek to raise 
private funds to offset this reduction. 

These funds are largely for salaries and benefits, which will make 
successful fund raising a challenge. The Institution will do its best in raising 
the required funds for public programs, exhibitions, and research to prevent 
the elimination of federal positions. If necessary, the Institution will also delay 
hires, implement a hiring freeze, or conduct a buyout of federal employees. 

Securing private resources for public programming and exhibitions will 
ensure that school groups and the general public continue to have the same 
experience as in the past when they visit the Smithsonian museums or the 
Smithsonian's website. Private funding will also sustain electronic program 
initiatives, including live online forums with curators, for teachers, students, 
and families, as well as classroom resources for educators. The Smithsonian 
will also have to recruit additional volunteers to staff popular exhibits such as 
the Insect Zoo. 

NO-YEAR AND TWO-YEAR FUNDING - The following table provides the 
FY 2009 Salaries and Expenses request for No-Year and Two-Year funding. 

No-Year and Two-Year Funding Request 

(Dollars in Thousands) 



Salaries and Expenses 


FY 2008 
Appropriation 


FY 2009 
Request 


No-Year Funds 






National Museum of African American 
History and Culture 


11,757 


12,393 


National Museum of Natural History: 






Exhibition Reinstallation 


1,000 


1,000 


Repatriation Program 


1,644 


1,678 


Major Scientific Instrumentation 


3,822 


3,822 


Collections Acquisition 


459 


459 


Total, No-Year 


$18,682 


$19,352 








Two-Year Funds 






Outreach: Office of Research and Training 
Services 


1,553 


1,553 


Total, Two-Year 


$1,553 


$1,553 



25 



FEDERAL RESOURCE SUMMARY BY PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE AND 

PROGRAM CATEGORY 

In accordance with the President's Management Agenda (PMA) 
initiative on budget and performance integration, the Smithsonian has 
developed its FY 2009 budget request by reviewing all resources, both base 
amounts and identified increases or decreases, in relation to the Institution's 
performance plan. In the sections that follow, detailed justifications are 
provided for all funding and FTEs by the Institution's strategic goals and by 
performance objectives under each goal, and specific annual performance 
goals are provided for each objective for which funding is requested. 

To better meet the standards of success in the budget and 
performance integration initiative of the PMA, the Institution's program 
performance goals and objectives were aligned with the program categories 
used in the federal budget and the Institution's financial accounting system. 
This enables the Institution to more clearly demonstrate the relationship 
between dollars budgeted and results achieved. 

The following table summarizes the Institution's FY 2008 and 
FY 2009 estimates and the proposed changes by strategic goal, performance 
objective, and program category. Program reductions (see page 25) are 
reflected in the FY 2009 totals for Public Programs, Exhibitions, and 
Research categories. 



26 



Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 

($ in Thousands) 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 

FTEs 


2008 

$000 


FY 

FTEs 


2009 

$000 


Cfi 

FTEs 


ange 

$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


252 


25,665 


218 


23,063 


-34 


-2,602 


Provide reference services and information 


110 


10,897 


97 


9,905 


-13 


-992 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


489 


48,412 


433 


43,909 


-56 


-4,503 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


526 


58,457 


530 


62,449 


4 


3,992 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


431 


61,178 


413 


60,899 


-18 


-279 


Ensure the advancement of knowledge in 
the humanities 


102 


13,144 


103 


13,511 


1 


367 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range 
revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities 


7 


1,189 


7 


1,535 





346 


Implement an aggressive and professional 
maintenance program 


321 


48,881 


373 


65,623 


52 


16,742 


Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient 
operation of Smithsonian facilities 


460 


121,398 


459 


124,850 


-1 


3,452 


Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers 


902 


57,222 


942 


61,103 


40 


3,881 


Provide a safe and healthy environment 


50 


7,126 


51 


7,315 


1 


189 


Information Technology 














Modernize the institution's information 
technology systems and infrastructure 


168 


50,088 


169 


53,043 


1 


2,955 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an Institutional culture that is 
customer centered and results oriented 


197 


21,076 


208 


22,842 


11 


1,766 


Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is 
efficient, collaborative, committed, 
innovative, and diverse 


85 


13,632 


84 


13,668 


-1 


36 


Modernize the Institution's financial 
management and accounting operations 


101 


13,007 


99 


13,128 


-2 


121 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian 
by maintaining good relations with the news 
media and with federal, state, and local 
governments 


42 


3,973 


42 


4,044 





71 


Modernize and streamline the Institution's 
acquisitions management operations 


41 


4,585 


41 


4,889 





304 


Financial Strength 














Secure the financial resources needed to 
carry out the Institution's mission 


7 


2,504 


7 


2,554 





50 
















TOTAL 


4,291 


562,434 


4,276 


588,400 


-15 


25,966 



27 



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30 



ANACOSTIA COMMUNITY MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


18 


1,952 


1 


255 





143 





104 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


21 


1,964 


2 


210 





125 





79 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


21 


2,004 


2 


210 





125 





79 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


8 


662 


8 


693 





31 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


5 


509 


5 


489 





-20 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


4 


373 


4 


386 





13 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


2 


232 


2 


241 





9 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


1 


83 


1 


86 





3 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


1 


105 


1 


109 





4 


Total 


21 


1,964 


21 


2,004 





40 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

On September 15, 2007, the Anacostia Community Museum (ACM) 
celebrated its 40th anniversary. Just as it has from its inception as the first 
federally funded, community-based museum, ACM faces unique challenges 
relating to mission, resources, and location. Over the years, it has developed 



31 



into a valuable cultural resource for the region and the country, setting a 
groundbreaking direction in terms of traditional museological thought and 
practice. 

Although the original intent behind the Smithsonian's establishment of 
what was initially called the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum was for audience 
development and outreach — to take the Smithsonian's cultural and historical 
treasures into neighborhoods whose residents did not venture to the Mall — 
these same residents quickly participated in helping to make the Museum 
relevant to their own experiences. Within months of its opening, the community 
rejected the eclectic collection of SI holdings being displayed. The Museum 
quickly modified its focus to the documentation, preservation, and interpretation 
of African American history and culture from a community-based perspective. It 
was the forerunner in using this approach to collaborate directly with different 
sectors of communities, including local museums, religious institutions, and arts, 
cultural, and civic organizations, in order to mobilize, organize, and equip them 
to research, document, interpret, and preserve their cultural heritage through 
educational and training programs. 

With the establishment of the National Museum of African American 
History and Culture (NMAAHC) in 2004, the ACM now finds itself having to 
redefine and redirect its mission and vision to create an identity that will not be 
duplicated by the launch of the NMAAHC. The Museum's new identity is in 
some ways a return to its original charter as a community museum. However, 
the new direction will define the term "community" in much broader terms. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $40,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

In FY 2007, the staff of the ACM completed a long-range strategic plan 
scheduled for implementation in October 2008. Not only will this plan redefine 
and better describe the Museum's mission and help shape its vision, it will 
create a blueprint for bridging the gap from its current reality to its new future. 

The ACM will continue to accomplish the Institution's goal of Increased 
Public Engagement through exhibitions, public programs, and collections, using 
resources that draw from the broad range of communities it serves. It will draw 
from those things that bring groups of people together — social, ethnic, 
religious, geographic, and other commonalities. Specifically, the Museum will 
continue to work with community partners to document and preserve local 
heritage, identify cultural materials at risk, document significant local cultural 
materials, and develop an interpretation and appreciation of them through 



32 



regionally based educational activities, publications, and exhibitions. Through its 
website, the Museum will disseminate information on community heritage 
preservation projects. 

From December 2008 through October 2009, the ACM will mount 
Jubilee, an exhibition on the plethora of traditional (as well as some not-so- 
traditional) celebrations prominent among different cultures — from religious 
observances to family reunions. The Sullivan Family Collection, an exhibition of 
documents, photographs, and artifacts tracing five generations of a family 
history, will also be on display from April through September 2009. Throughout 
FY 2009, preparations for The African Presence in Mexico, an exhibition from 
the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum in Chicago, will be finalized and 
complemented with collaborative programming from other SI units. Confirmed 
collaborating SI partners to date include the Latino Center, the Center for 
Folklife and Cultural Heritage, the National Museum of American History 
(NMAH), and the National Museum of African Art (NMAfA). 

Beginning in 2009, to increase public interest in and access to the 
Museum's permanent collection, rotating exhibitions (in four- to five-month 
intervals) of select items from the collection will be displayed in the John R. 
Kinard Gallery. Several related teaching aids and reference guides will be 
developed and made available online and in print. 

Recognizing the ACM's unique responsibility to youth development within 
the southeast Washington, DC community and beyond, the Museum Academy 
Program will be expanded from its out-of-school-time programming for children 
to a multi-tiered program involving both school day and after-school offerings 
for K-12th grades. There will be a menu of programmatic activities, from 
cultural enrichment to educational enhancement and career training, which can 
be tailored to meet the specific needs of each collaborative community partner. 

By 2009, the ACM will reinstate the Young Curators program, first 
established in 1998, using the collections and expertise of the ACM curatorial, 
research, and archives staff. The Museum will also expand internship 
opportunities for high school and college students, and will continue to be an 
educational and career-building resource for them. The various program 
components provide direct access to exhibitions, collections, and professional 
staff of the Museum and the wider Smithsonian Institution. Outreach to high 
school students seeks to broaden the experiences and horizons of young people 
through training in cultural documentation and preservation, as well as through 
docent and practicum opportunities. 

In FY 2009, the Museum will continue to expand its regional community 
network by collaborating directly with partners in preservation and training, and 



33 



with regional seminars designed to promote community action in cultural 
heritage preservation. 

Another Community Historians Initiative, Family Legacies, will increase 
the capacity of families to preserve history and traditions through regionally 
based family history workshops, Web-based resources, and a family history 
conference. These activities will lead to the development of materials for a 
future exhibition tentatively titled Family Reunions: Preserving Traditions. 

The Museum will achieve the Institution's goal of Enhanced Management 
Excellence by improving customer service and responsiveness through a Web- 
based, direct feedback site. This website will be specifically designed for local, 
regional, and national partner institutions, and will provide online reference and 
consultation for solutions to problems and issues. It will also include links to the 
related websites of the Museum's cultural partners. 

The ACM will maintain substantive relationships with state and local 
governments through the regional partnership process. Staff will offer training 
and technical assistance to strengthen local, regional, and national partners' 
abilities to preserve local heritage. The Museum will increase its public relations 
efforts directed toward local, regional, national, and international press outlets, 
and will seek news media coverage in periodicals related to its field. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (8 FTEs and $693,000) 

• Develop new regional exhibition projects focusing on a broader 
definition of community, as defined by geography, ethnicity, shared 
interests, professions, culture, etc., in keeping with the revised mission 
and vision of ACM — to be refined during the Museum's ongoing 
strategic planning process 

• Reinstate the Young Curators program, first established in 1998, using 
the collections and expertise of the ACM curatorial, research, and 
archives staff. This program will expand internship opportunities for 
high school and college students, and will be an educational and 
career-building resource for them 

• Expand the ACM Community Historians Initiative, a regional cultural 
heritage consortium, and bring together a network of community 
historians, artists, and craftspersons for training as community curators 

• Conduct training and provide technical assistance for small and mid- 
size museums to enhance their capacity for community documentation 
and preservation 



34 



Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the country (5 FTEs and $489,000) 

• Present Jubilee, an exhibition on traditional (as well as some not-so- 
traditional) celebrations 

• Present the Sullivan Family Co/lection documents, photographs, and 
artifacts tracing five generations of family history 

• Prepare The African Presence in Mexico, an exhibition from the 
Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum in Chicago 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (4 FTEs and 
$386,000) 

• Acquire collections documenting all aspects of various diverse communities 

• Create Web access to ACM collections 

• Publish an inventory of the Museum's permanent collection 

• Develop teaching tools and reference guides based on the resources in 
the permanent collection 

• Present rotating exhibits of select items from the permanent collection 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (2 FTEs and $241,000) 

• Develop responsive strategies to support and connect regional heritage 
preservation networks 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (1 FT E and $86,000) 

• Align individual performance plan objectives directly with annual 
organizational objectives 

• Increase staff training to support local, regional, and national 
preservation networks 

• Enhance network and information technology skills 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments 
(1 FTE and $109,000) 

• Ensure timely press notification of key exhibitions, programs, and 
important collections acquisitions 

• Work with regional press outlets to provide information and outreach 
concerning Museum activities with regional collaborators 

• Maintain and increase relationships with state and local governments 
through the regional partnership process intended to strengthen 
regional partners' capacity to preserve and interpret local heritage and 
to celebrate and commemorate heritage preservation successes 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support the salaries 
and benefits of the Museum director and director of development. 



35 



CENTER FOR FOLKLIFE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


15 


2,442 


12 


1,283 


9 


2,405 





276 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


18 


2,185 


11 


1,308 


5 


1,437 


3 


895 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


18 


2,230 


11 


1,308 


5 


1,860 





5 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Develop and bring first-class educational 
resources to the nation 


4 


653 


4 


670 





17 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


9 


915 


9 


933 





18 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


2 


200 


2 


200 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers 





100 





100 








Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information 
technology systems and infrastructure 


1 


120 


1 


125 





5 


Management Operations 














Modernize the Institution's financial 
management and accounting operations 


2 


197 


2 


202 





5 


Total 


18 


2,185 


18 


2,230 





45 



36 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage conducts research and public 
programs that promote the understanding and continuity of traditional grass- 
roots regional, ethnic, tribal, and occupational heritage in the United States and 
abroad. The Center maintains the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, 
a repository of documentary sound recordings, photographic images, and 
reports deemed a national treasure through the Save America's Treasures 
program. In addition, the Center produces the annual Smithsonian Folklife 
Festival on the National Mall every summer — long recognized as the premier 
event of its kind. The Center produces Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, which 
include the iconic songs, speeches, and sounds of the American experience 
among its more than 3,000 published titles. The Center also produces websites, 
particularly Smithsonian Global Sound, which bring its collections and 
educational materials to libraries and schools throughout the nation and 
worldwide. The Center cooperates with federal, state, and international 
agencies to advance the nation's interest in cultural matters, and produces 
major national celebration events which have included the National World War II 
Reunion, the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian, and 
various programs for the Olympics and Presidential Inaugural festivities. 

For FY 2009, the budget request includes an increase of $45,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the Smithsonian's goal of Increased Public Engagement, the 
Center will continue its annual production of the Smithsonian Folklife Festival on 
the National Mall. This museum of living cultural heritage is very popular with 
the public and the media, as well as with the communities served. In 2008, the 
Festival will feature the Himalayan country of Bhutan, music and culinary 
traditions of Texas, the occupational traditions of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA), and the musical traditions of African American 
and Latino artists. The Festival aims to draw one million visitors in 2008 and 
reach millions more through webcasts and media coverage. In 2009, plans are 
to feature the cultural traditions of Wales, Tanzania, and Latino and Latin 
American music. Traveling exhibitions produced from the Festival, such as 
Workers of the White House, will tour the nation and reach additional audiences 
in 2009. 

To bring Smithsonian educational resources to the nation, the Center will 
continue to issue approximately 18 new documentary recordings in CD format 
(through Smithsonian Folkways Recordings) in 2009, as well as continue to 
distribute the 3,000 album titles in its back catalogue to teachers, students, 
musicians, community members, and the general public. New recordings will 

37 



feature the musical traditions of diverse communities from across the United 
States and around the world, and are expected to reflect the high quality that 
has earned Smithsonian Folkways eight Grammy award nominations, one 
winner, and other major awards in the past three years. Smithsonian Folkways 
and other digital collections of the Center will continue to be disseminated 
through the Smithsonian Global Sound website, both to the general public and 
(in a more specialized form) to some 350 subscribing libraries throughout the 
nation and worldwide. Smithsonian Global Sound includes more than 40,000 
soundtracks, liner notes, and educational features drawn from Festival 
performances and the Rinzler and partner archives. Together with related 
websites, it is expected to reach more than four million visitors. 

To apply Smithsonian research to its work and collections, the Center will 
continue to preserve and catalogue its documentary sound, photographic, and 
ethnographic collections as well as generate new materials by organizing the 
research projects necessary to produce the Festival and Smithsonian Folkways 
Recordings. After moving the Center and the Archive to a new location in late 
2006, the Archive reopened to users in FY 2007. 

Center curators and research staff will continue to publish books and 
articles, make professional presentations, and contribute to U.S. cultural 
heritage policy formulation through consultation with the U.S. Department of 
State, cooperative work with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and other national and international 
organizations. 

The Center will contribute to the Smithsonian's goal of Enhanced 
Management Excellence and will continue to help provide for security and safety 
of people and property outdoors on the National Mall during the Festival period. 
Festival organizers will work with the National Park Service to acquire outdoor 
flooring to protect the Mall's turf and tree roots. The Center will also continue 
to improve its information technology infrastructure for tracking Festival 
participants and related project budgeting and planning. 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Develop and bring first-class educational resources to the nation (4 FTEs 
and $670,000) 

• Generate more than four million visits to the Center's webpages 

• Have Smithsonian Global Sound adopted by more than 350 libraries as 
a resource for students and teachers 



38 



• Produce and distribute at least 18 documentary recordings through 
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 

• Develop at least 10 new educational features for teachers and 
students on the Smithsonian Global Sound website 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions (9 FTEs and $933,000) 

• Produce the annual Folklife Festival on the National Mall 

• Generate attendance of one million visitors 

• Feature more than 400 musicians and artists from cultural 
communities important to Americans 

• Generate 500 media stories about the Festival 

• Generate 90 percent approval ratings by the public for the Festival 

• Travel at least two exhibitions generated from the Festival and other 
projects throughout the United States 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (2 FTEs and $200,000) 

• Generate 400 audio recordings, 200 videotapes, 5,000 images, and at 
least 100 narrative reports documenting contemporary community- 
based cultural traditions for preparation of the Festival, Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings, and other Center projects 

• Process and secure the archival and artifact collections in the new 
Capital Gallery office space 

• Install digitization equipment and facilities, and enhance software to 
continue digitization processes 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Provide world-class protection for Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
and volunteers ($100,000) 

• Provide enhanced security and safety for the Folklife Festival 
Modernize the Institution 's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (1 FTE and $125,000) 

• Coordinate with the central Smithsonian system and modernize the 
current systems used for Festival budgeting, planning, and production 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations and streamline the acquisitions management operations 
(2 FTEs and $202,000) 

• Process thousands of financial transactions for the Center 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds provide support for 
salaries and benefits of personnel. Donor/sponsor-designated funds provide 
support for costs related to specific projects such as the Smithsonian Folklife 
Festival, Smithsonian Global Sound, and several other educational programs. 
Income from sales of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings pays staff salaries and 
direct and indirect costs. In FY 2007, more than $7.2 million was raised in 
outside revenues, grants, gifts, and contracts. 



39 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN 
HISTORY AND CULTURE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


11 


3,681 


2 


361 





234 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


41 


11,757 


1 


383 





250 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


41 


12,393 


1 


388 





100 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE; AND GREATER 

FINANCIAL STRENGTH 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


6 


1,313 


6 


1,358 





45 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


4 


1,231 


4 


1,241 





10 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


5 


2,866 


5 


2,914 





48 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in humanities 


2 


275 


2 


281 





6 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization 
program and limited construction of new facilities 





453 





825 





372 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


2 


1,067 


2 


1,080 





13 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


10 


1,025 


10 


1,117 





92 


Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, 
collaborative, committed, innovative, and diverse 





124 





124 








Modernize the Institution's financial management and 
accounting operations 


4 


611 


4 


611 









40 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


1 


288 


1 


288 








Greater Financial Strength 














Secure the financial resources needed to carry out the 
Institution's mission 


7 


2,504 


7 


2,554 





50 


Total 


41 


11,757 


41 


12,393 





636 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) 
was established to document, collect, conserve, interpret, and display the 
historical and cultural experiences and achievements of Americans of African 
descent. When completed, the NMAAHC will provide a national meeting place for 
all to learn about the history and culture of African Americans and their 
contributions to every aspect of American life. This effort will encompass the 
period of slavery, the era of reconstruction, the Harlem Renaissance, the civil 
rights movement, and other periods of the African American diaspora. As a truly 
national institution whose vision is to be a place that has meaning for all citizens, 
the NMAAHC will use the African American experience as a lens into what it 
means to be an American. 

When the founding director was hired in 2005, he committed to open the 
NMAAHC on the National Mall within 10 years. It is anticipated that, if pre-design 
and programming phases for the building are completed in the summer of 2008, 
design work will be completed in the fall of 201 1 and construction completed in 
2015, allowing for an opening soon thereafter. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $264,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item, and a programmatic 
increase of $372,000 to support the rental of space for collections housing and 
processing and an annual rent increase for current leased space, both of which are 
justified in the Mandatory Costs section of this budget. As authorized by Public 
Law 108-184, these funds are requested to remain available until expended. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, activities will include 
efforts to build alliances and collaborative partnerships within the Smithsonian 
Institution, as well as with African American organizations and other national 
organizations, to help generate support to build and develop the Museum, leverage 
resources, and share ideas. Because public awareness of the Museum is limited, 
the NMAAHC has embarked on a long-term campaign of visibility to broaden 
knowledge through print and electronic media, and through national programs to 



41 



tour collections and exhibitions that engage and inspire audiences throughout the 
nation. 

Collaborative initiatives and activities to increase public awareness are being 
planned as follows: 



• 



The NMAAHC is collaborating with Atlanta's High Museum of Art on two 
exhibitions and a catalogue. The exhibitions will examine photographic 
records from the civil rights movement, with an accompanying show of 
works by contemporary artists responding to the civil rights images. A 
related catalogue will feature illustrations and documentation of the project, 
with an essay by the curator and a leading cultural historian. The exhibition 
Road to Freedom tracks an historic moment that continues to shape 
contemporary thought and culture. To further the dialogue generated by the 
images included in Road to Freedom, while renewing awareness of the 
revolutionary actions they record, the High Museum will invite a group of 
influential contemporary artists to create new work in response to the 
photographs and artifacts included in that exhibition. 

Color Pictures: Visual Culture and the Struggle for Civil Rights, a 
collaborative project with the Center for Art and Visual Culture at the 
University of Maryland in Baltimore, represents the first comprehensive look 
at the role played by visual representation. Using images from both high and 
popular culture, the exhibition and book will track the ways in which these 
images perpetuated racial stereotypes, altered attitudes and beliefs, 
fostered a sense of black pride and accomplishment, and transformed the 
negative view of African Americans in the culture at large. 

In FY 2009, the NMAAHC will collaborate with the National Museum of 
Natural History (NMNH) and the National Museum of the American Indian 
(NMAI) to produce programming for several exhibitions, including Written in 
Bone at NMNH, Shared Identity at NMAI, and the groundbreaking exhibition 
produced by the Minnesota Science Center, Race: Are We So Different? at 
NMNH. 

The NMAAHC will collaborate with museums around the Mall to bring the 
touring exhibition Transcendent Traditions: Baskets of Two Continents to 
the Smithsonian. The exhibition highlights the remarkable beauty of coiled 
basketry, and features more than 100 baskets from diverse regions of 
Africa, the low country of South Carolina, and Georgia. The exhibition is 
being organized by the Museum of African Art in New York City. 

Programmatic collaborations include the National Zoological Park's (NZP) 
annual African American Family Celebration that includes: documenting 
family objects and teaching visitors to preserve their family documents, 
photographs, and textiles; a presentation relating to the local African 

42 



American community and an award to a local African American who has 
given outstanding service to the NZP; an oral history program being held in 
conjunction with the National Children's Museum; school programming and 
performances with Arena Stage and the Washington Performing Arts 
Society; and annual programming with the National Council of Negro 
Women's Black Family Reunion. 

• In FY 2009, the NMAAHC will continue its collaboration with the National 
Portrait Gallery (NPG) and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES) to create a touring version of Let Your Motto Be Resistance: 
African American Portraits. The exhibition, which opened to great acclaim in 
New York City in 2007, will travel to 12 venues around the country. The 
first venue is the California African American Museum in Los Angeles. 
Curriculum guides for elementary, middle, and high school students will be 
made available to the host museums, along with a listing of art, 
performance, and film programs. 

• The NMAAHC will continue its collaboration with the Center for Folklife and 
Cultural Heritage to produce the 2009 Smithsonian Folklife Festival. 

• Developed in partnership with International Business Machines (IBM) in 
FY 2007, the Museum on the Web encourages visitors to share their 
knowledge, stories, and creativity — building community and enabling the 
public to participate in celebrating the culture and building the Museum. IBM 
provided this major in-kind contribution to support this vital program. In 

FY 2009, the NMAAHC will continue to develop and enhance this tool to 
extend the reach of the Museum's vision and programs to a global 
audience. During this time, the NMAAHC will be engaged in the second 
phase of the website's development — adding more functions, interactive 
components, and greater capacities for various online media and social 
networking. Functionalities of the site will include, but are not limited to, 
virtual tours of exhibitions, online participation, visitor surveys, and the 
ability to view updates on the progress of design and construction of the 
building. The Museum on the Web will play a significant role in the 
Museum's ability to raise funds, build a constituency, identify collections, 
and become a physical presence on the National Mall. 

• The NMAAHC will continue its National Collections Initiative project, "Save 
Our African American Treasures." The Museum will continue engaging the 
American public in discovering, collecting, preserving, and sharing the 
material culture of African American heritage through a series of programs 
and collaborations with museums and historical institutions in five key 
cities: New York, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, DC. The 
goals of the "Save Our African American Treasures" initiative are to: 

o demonstrate that the Museum exists now 
o cultivate and strengthen national partnerships 

43 



o document and identify potential Museum collections 

o assist the public in identifying and preserving objects of historic and 

cultural significance 
o provide teachers with hands-on curriculum materials 
o collect oral histories and Memory Book entries 

• Through continued development of symposia, workshops, and forums, the 
Museum will cultivate strong partnerships, gain significant visibility, and 
enable communities across the country to feel a sense of ownership in the 
success of this national Museum. These programs will be designed to 
inspire the American people, educate children, equip teachers, honor elders, 
excite the Museum's audience, inform a new generation, instill pride, 
connect people with their heritage, and ensure that access to a rich history 
is available to future generations. 

The identification of potential collections will continue as an ongoing pursuit 
and the Museum will accept donated collections and purchase collections on a 
systematic basis (for example, as they may relate to future planned exhibitions), 
and on an opportunistic basis (as significant African American historical items may 
surface at the whim of benevolent donors and benefactors). 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, the NMAAHC will continue 
to emphasize the development of educational materials, publications, public 
programs, collections, and exhibitions based on scholarly research. In addition, the 
NMAAHC will continue to collaborate with other Smithsonian units and external 
organizations to produce content-rich programs and exhibitions. 

The Museum will also continue to enhance its management and 
administrative infrastructure by developing its operating organizational structure 
and making revisions as necessary to accomplish program goals. Staff will develop 
estimates of future staffing, space, and storage needs, and will prepare operating 
budgets and plans accordingly. Information technology needs will be identified, 
and required hardware and software installed, to provide an efficient, networked 
technology infrastructure, including the enhancement and maintenance of the 
Museum's website. 

To secure the resources needed to successfully build and develop the 
Museum, the NMAAHC will use its federal fundraising resources to develop and 
nurture relationships with potential significant donors, build a reliable base of 
regular donors, and use advanced fundraising techniques to identify and cultivate 
sources of new and larger donations. Enacting legislation mandates that the 
Smithsonian Institution pay 50 percent of building construction costs with 
appropriated federal funds and 50 percent with non-federal resources. Therefore, 
substantial cultivation of donors, combined with substantial activities in public 
relations, will be required to achieve and sustain fundraising success in the future. 

44 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (6 FTEs and $1 ,358,000) 

• Observe the 40th anniversary of the tumultuous year of 1 968, the year 
of the Rev. Martin Luther King's assassination and subsequent urban 
unrest, of Robert Kennedy's assassination and the Democratic and 
Republican conventions of that election year, with a scholarly 
conference in the fall of 2008. The conference will be planned with the 
Museum's Scholarly Advisory Committee, and will involve colleagues 
from universities in the metropolitan Washington, DC area 

• Plan a Smithsonian Folklife Festival Program with the Smithsonian's 
Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, which will present cultural 
traditions from the range of communities of African descent in the 
Western hemisphere 

• Develop student materials honoring the anniversary of Marian 
Anderson's historic concert 

• Continue to establish affiliations/collaborative agreements with 
museums, educational institutions, and foundations 

• Continue preliminary concepts/designs for public programs 

• Continue to develop a national membership program 

• Continue to develop concepts/proposals for student and teacher programs 

• Continue to mentor interns, Fellows, and professional staff 

• Continue to engage volunteers at various levels of the organization 
Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions (4 FTEs and $1,241,000) 

• Fund the creation of a new gallery space at the National Museum of 
American History (NMAH) for the display of NMAAHC exhibitions and 
programming. This new gallery will be approximately 3,000 square feet, 
and will be located in a highly visible area of the Museum's second floor. 
The gallery will be designed to accommodate a wide range of changing 
exhibitions. The first exhibition will open in September 2008 

• Continue to develop concepts/designs for exhibitions 

• Increase curatorial support 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (5 FTEs and $2,914,000) 

• Implement a process to ensure that objects receive required conservation 
prior to being moved into renovated, climate-controlled storage 

• Continue to identify and acquire (through gift/purchase) desired items 

• Continue to develop a collections management and information strategy 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities (2 FTEs and 
$281,000) 

• Produce at least two recordings, one of existing materials from archival 
recordings and one of new music or spoken-word narratives. These will 
appear as part of the new African American Legacy Series 

45 



• Continue to collaborate with Smithsonian Folkways Recordings to 
repackage existing individual American music and spoken-word 
recordings associated with African American history 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities ($825,000) 

• Occupy and pay for rental space for collections housing and processing 

• Occupy and pay for expanded temporary rental space in a timely and 
efficient manner 

Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (2 FTEs and $1,080,000) 

• Support the Institution's efforts to improve its technology infrastructure 
through use of a consultant webmaster and arranging for staff training 

• Continue to implement internal hardware/software operating requirements 

• Continue to expand and develop the Museum's existing website 
Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (10 FTEs and $ 1, 117,000) 

• Continue to refine organizational structure 

• Continue to improve internal operations through analysis of programs 
Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse ($124,000) 

• Continue comprehensive training to improve professional skills of staff 
Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting operations 
(4 FTEs and $611,000) 

• Prepare purchase orders, personnel actions, and fiscal and contractual 
documents in a timely and accurate manner 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments (1 FTE 
and $288,000) 

• Continue to develop a national visibility campaign that captures public 
attention through various communications and public relations 
activities. This campaign will be designed to enhance fund raising, 
membership and collections building, and educational programming, as 
well as increase audiences for the Museum's inaugural traveling 
exhibition. This campaign will be designed and implemented in 
collaboration with other Smithsonian divisions, including the Offices of 
Public Affairs and Development. A keen focus will be put on developing 
media coverage by establishing partnerships with national organizations 

Greater Financial Strength 

Secure the financial resources needed to carry out the Institution 's mission 
(7 FTEs and $2,554,000) 

• Continue to set goals and priorities for obtaining substantially increased 
private donations 

• Continue to schedule one-on-one activities with several major donors 

46 



• Continue to conduct special fundraising events for donors 

• Continue to manage an ongoing and proactive public relations and media 
program to engage donors, corporations, and the media, and to increase 
their enthusiasm and support for the Museum's mission and programs 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $636,000. Included 
in the increase is $264,000 for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this 
line item; $362,000 to support the rental of space for collections; and $10,000 to 
support an annual rent increase for current leased space. Details of the increases 
are as follows: 

• ( + $362,000) This increase will support the rental of space for collections 
housing and processing. As the NMAAHC moves ahead with plans and 
operations geared to the opening of the Museum on the Mall, it is crucial that it 
obtain resources to provide adequate and appropriate space to maintain the 
planned collections. This will entail the availability of sufficient museum- 
standard storage space to house the expanding collection activities of the 
Museum. This space should be accessible for staff and visiting scholars as the 
program and developmental activities of the Museum call for the use of these 
artifacts to support research, care and preservation, and public outreach while 
the Museum is prepared for opening. 

• ( + $10,000) This increase will provide for annual rent increases in accordance 
with the terms of current lease contracts. 

If the FY 2009 increase request is not allowed, the Smithsonian's ability to 
properly store and process collections will be hindered. New funding is critical to 
continue development of an infrastructure. Future increases will be necessary to 
finish developing the NMAAHC. At this developmental stage of the newest of the 
Smithsonian family of museums, it is crucial that the Museum maintain 
momentum to carry its mission forward, maintain and enhance a public presence, 
and strive to reach realistic benchmarks in the establishment of a building on the 
Mall, as well as a public presence that signifies the rich and vibrant historical and 
cultural role and contributions of African Americans. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salary and 
benefit costs of the Museum director. Donor/sponsor-designated funds provide 
support for staff, special events for exhibition openings, and costs related to 
specific programs and projects, including educational programs, donor-related 
special events, and outreach activities. 



47 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN HISTORY, 
KENNETH E. BEHRING CENTER 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


183 


21,011 


11 


1,973 


44 


8,108 


17 


2,888 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


190 


20,974 


9 


1,114 


38 


19,754 


20 


3,332 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


190 


22,152 


13 


1,709 


35 


8,054 


20 


3,088 



Note: Operating resources include the National Postal Museum 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AMERICAN HISTORY, 
KENNETH E. BEHRING CENTER 

STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


33 


3,104 


33 


3,210 





106 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


58 


4,454 


58 


4,657 





203 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


49 


6,987 


49 


7,725 





738 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


28 


3,853 


28 


3,929 





76 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient 
operation of Smithsonian facilities 


2 


365 


2 


367 





2 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


9 


1,074 


9 


1,096 





22 


Management Operations 














Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


4 


424 


4 


435 





1 1 


Total 


183 


20,261 


183 


21,419 





1,158 



48 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Museum of American History (NMAH), Kenneth E. Behring 
Center, works to inspire a broader understanding of our nation and its people 
through exhibitions, public programs, research, and collections activity. The 
NMAH is the only Museum with the mandate to tell the entire story of 
America, from the early contact period through the 21st century. The Museum 
collects and preserves more than three million artifacts — from the original 
Star-Spangled Banner and Abraham Lincoln's top hat to Dizzy Gillespie's 
angled trumpet and Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz. 

Generations of visitors — averaging nearly three million on site each 
year, making it the most-visited history museum in the world, with millions 
more online — have explored the Museum's halls, making their own personal 
discoveries. The NMAH has something for everyone, presenting the triumphs 
and tragedies, explorations and innovations, and treasures and curiosities 
that animate the American story. The Museum creates learning 
opportunities, stimulates imaginations, and presents challenging ideas about 
our country's past. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $1,158,000. 
Included in the increase are $549,000 for necessary pay for existing staff 
funded under this line item and $609,000 for off-site storage leases, both of 
which are also justified in the Mandatory Costs section of this budget 
submission. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

The Museum will reopen in 2008 to reveal the new Star-Spangled 
Banner Gallery, an architectural transformation of the Museum's central core, 
and the updating of the Museum's infrastructure. The NMAH will take full 
advantage of the renovated exhibition and public spaces to offer visitors a 
stimulating and dynamic cultural environment. The renovation will revitalize 
the presentation of the Museum's unrivaled collections and ensure that the 
NMAH is a source of national pride and inspiration to visitors, researchers, 
and employees. 

The Star-Spangled Banner will be displayed at the center of the 
Museum in a state-of-the-art gallery so that it may be preserved and enjoyed 
by generations to come. Along with ensuring the long-term preservation of 
this cherished artifact, the exhibition will present the history of the flag and 
evoke its significance as a national symbol. This permanent exhibition 
represents the Smithsonian's greatest effort to meet the dual challenges of 



49 



preserving the Star-Spangled Banner and communicating its history and 
significance to visitors. 

The Museum's most visible architectural changes will be the central 
atrium and skylight, a grand staircase connecting the first and second floors, 
and 10-foot-high artifact walls on the first and second floors showcasing the 
breadth of the Museum's three million objects. Additionally, every visitor's 
Museum experience will be greatly enhanced by a new exhibition gallery for 
the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, new retail 
operations and Visitor Welcome Center, improved signage and increased 
sightlines, and the reopening of previously closed exhibitions. 

NMAH staff will continue to plan and design future exhibits and 
programs, work on reopening exhibitions, conduct programs and 
performances, develop traveling exhibitions, acquire new collections, 
conduct research, and extend the scope of the Museum through new and 
expanding electronic outreach initiatives. The new program series for families 
and adults will feature living history, live musical performances (including 
Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra and the Smithsonian Chamber 
Music Society), and hands-on experiences. Featured programs will include 
African American Culture, Latino History and Culture, and Jazz Appreciation 
Month. The Museum's popular website will be expanded and upgraded with 
new features on exhibitions, collections, and public programs. The new 
Thinkfinity initiative will provide innovative and stimulating resources for 
teachers, students, and after-school audiences. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (33 FTEs and 
$3,210,000) 

• Develop a new long-term exhibition, With Liberty and Justice for 
All, on the history of civil rights 

• Develop traveling exhibitions based on the Scurlock African 
American photography collection, the Bracero History Program, and 
the Museum's hip-hop initiative 

• Integrate the stories of diverse Americans in all new exhibitions, 
especially On the Water and American Dreams: An Introduction to 
American History 

• Launch new engaging programs for visiting school groups, 
featuring living history interpreters and hands-on activity carts 

• Present new seasonal programs including family activities and 
events for the Smithsonian heritage months 



50 



• Continue planning for the new Lemelson and Education Centers 

• Integrate new visitor service policies into all Museum activities 

• Launch electronic initiatives for teachers, students, and families 

• Present the Smithsonian's Jazz Masterworks Orchestra's new 
concert season, featuring a signature holiday event 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (58 FTEs and $4,657,000) 

• Open new long-term exhibitions, On the Water and American 
Dreams: An Introduction to American History 

• Open a temporary exhibition for the Abraham Lincoln bicentennial 

• Continue development of new exhibitions on The American 
Presidency, First Ladies, and America Plays: Music, Sports and 
Entertainment — projected to open in 2012 

• Continue working with the National Air and Space Museum 
(NASM) to develop Finding Time and Place: From Chronometers to 
GPS — projected to open in 2010 

• Develop new long-term exhibitions on American Enterprise 
(business history) and With Liberty and Justice for All (about the 
history of civil rights in the United States) 

• Develop traveling exhibitions based on the Scurlock African 
American photography collection, the Bracero History Program, and 
the Museum's hip-hop initiative 

• Begin planning for the Civil War Sesquicentennial (201 1 -201 5) 
Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (49 FTEs and $7,725,000) 

• Implement appropriate collections preservation and documentation 
procedures to ensure that NMAH collections are cared for and are 
physically accessible to the broadest possible audience, internal 
and external 

• Implement appropriate collections registration and documentation 
procedures to ensure that NMAH collections are legally and 
contextually documented, and that related information is accessible 
to the broadest possible audience, internal and external 

• Implement recommendations from the NMAH Collections 
Information Systems (CIS) Data Analysis Project 

• Produce two collections groups for the NMAH website 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through 
original research (28 FTEs and $3,929,000) 

• Continue research on new long-term exhibitions on American 
Enterprise (business history) and With Liberty and Justice for All 
(the history of civil rights in the United States) 



51 



• Complete research on a book to accompany the Abraham Lincoln 
bicentennial exhibition 

• Complete research on websites for all exhibitions scheduled to 
open upon completion of the renovation 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities (2 FTEs and $367,000) 

• Integrate the Comprehensive Facilities Development Plan with the 
Smithsonian's Capital Facilities Project Planning system, as well as 
with the Smithsonian's global space planning document, to ensure 
the comprehensive integration of collections storage needs and 
completion of ongoing public space renewal projects 

• Reduce work-related accidents and illnesses by at least five percent 
Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (9 FTEs and $1,096,000) 

• Provide design, implementation, maintenance, security, and 
administrative support for the Museum's information and exhibit 
technology infrastructure 

• Install the Museum's public spaces network cable plant as part of 
the public spaces renovation program 

• Add digital content to the Museum's collections 

• Expand electronic file storage to provide adequate capacity for 
Museum data 

• Examine and enhance Museum data processing systems to enable 
and leverage new and existing business processes 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (4 FTEs and $435,000) 

• Maximize use of the electronic systems for travel and accountable 
property management 

• Complete at least three recruiting trips to minority colleges/universities 

• Advertise 80 percent of open staff positions above grade GS-13 in 
media which will normally guarantee a widely diverse population of 
candidates 

• Ensure that 100 percent of staff members attend diversity training and 
other Sl-mandated training 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $1,158,000. 
Included in the increase are $549,000 for necessary pay for existing staff 
funded under this line item and $609,000 for off-site storage leases, both of 
which are justified in the Mandatory Costs section of this budget submission. 
Details of the program increase are as follows: 



52 



• Off-site Storage ( + $609,000) — There is a permanent and 
mandatory need to lease space to properly store the Museum's 
collection of more than three million objects. The collections 
currently stored at the Cinderbed Road facility include objects 
removed from the Road, Rail, Power Machinery, and Electricity Halls; 
the central core exhibits — Material World; Palm Court; Headsville 
Post Office; Agriculture Hall; Graphic Arts Hall; Hall of American 
Maritime Enterprises; and the recently acquired CIGNA Collection — 
a large collection of firefighting and maritime objects donated by the 
CIGNA insurance company that recently closed its museum. The 
annual lease payments for either the existing Cinderbed Road or 
future off-site facilities exceed the available financial resources of 
the Museum. Lease payments were originally planned to come from 
permanent exhibition budgets; however, these funds have been 
exhausted and there is no public or private Museum funding stream 
for off-site storage. 

Failure to approve the increase request for off-site storage will result in 
degradation of current and future exhibitions. Providing for the physical 
storage of the collection is a basic component of the stewardship of the 
NMAH artifacts, which cannot be neglected. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits for a small but essential percentage of NMAH personnel, as well 
as general operating costs. Donor/sponsor-designated funds support 
research, planning, design, fabrication, installation, maintenance work, and 
educational programming related to both current and anticipated Museum 
exhibits, including the Star-Spangled Banner. Donor/sponsor-designated 
funds are the Museum's primary means of developing and installing new 
exhibits. Donor-designated funds are also vital to renovate the public spaces 
in the Museum. 



53 



NATIONAL POSTAL MUSEUM 

STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


1 


125 


1 


125 








Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


6 


563 


6 


583 





20 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 





25 





25 








Total 


7 


713 


7 


733 





20 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Postal Museum (NPM) was created to preserve, interpret, 
and exhibit historical stamps and postal objects. The Museum dedicates its 
resources to developing new and innovative ways to explore the vital role of 
the postal system in American life, and to making its vast philatelic and 
postal collections available to all. NPM uses its collections in innovative 
exhibits and programs that educate the public about the history of America, 
transportation, economics, and commerce. 

In addition to the many activities and programs that are completed 
throughout the year, the NPM is focused on several major initiatives aimed at 
increasing visitation to both the Museum and its website. These initiatives 
include an 1 8,000-square-foot expansion of the Museum's exhibit space; the 
creation of a new Philatelic Center of Excellence honoring the U.S. Stamp 
Collection; the design and fabrication of seven new history galleries; and 
continued upgrades and enhancements to the increasingly popular Web- 
based, online collection information system. The success of these long-term 
projects will require the use of non-federal resources made available to the 
Museum. 

For FY 2009, the budget request includes an increase of $20,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 



54 



MEANS AND STRATEGY 

The National Postal Museum's primary activities are aimed at meeting the 
goal of Increased Public Engagement through new exhibitions and improved 
stewardship of the national collections. In FY 2009, the NPM will exhibit the 
second portion of the Hirzel collection, one of the premier collections of classic 
U.S. philately. Similar to the Miller exhibit, the Hirzel exhibit is a two-year 
project that is expected to attract a strong following in the philatelic community, 
as well as in the general public. The Museum's plan to expand its exhibition 
space will serve as a major attraction for new and current visitors. Planning 
efforts are currently under way to assess the space requirements needed for the 
design of a newly renovated National Philatelic Gallery. The new gallery will be a 
permanent home for the National Collection exhibition, the Museum's largest 
and most comprehensive philatelic display. 

In FY 2009, planning and design will begin on the Systems at Work 
gallery, the first of seven history galleries. The exhibit will explore the history 
and development of the expanding postal network, focusing on the innovative 
communication techniques used to move the mail. In the future, history galleries 
will be made up of seven different exhibits which will explore the history of 
America's postal service from the Colonial period to the present. Although most 
of the galleries are in the planning stages, research will begin on the Portrait of 
a Postal Worker gallery in FY 2009. The exhibit will highlight the history of 
America's postal employees and their jobs. Postal employees and their families 
will be invited to share their stories through an interactive memory book that 
will be available online as well as in the gallery. 

The Museum's federal resources are primarily dedicated to improving the 
stewardship of the national collections for present and future generations. In 
FY 2009, the NPM will continue to process new acquisitions, which includes 
digitizing and cataloguing these entries using the automated collections 
information system (CIS). Ongoing efforts to reduce the existing backlog of 
accessions will also continue. A major initiative to improve accessibility to off- 
site collections will remain a Museum priority. In FY 2007, a significant portion 
of postal history objects were moved to the Curseen-Morris postal facility. In 
FY 2008, the NPM transported several postal vehicles to various postal facilities 
for display and storage. In FY 2009, resources will be used to survey, inventory, 
catalogue, and scan these off-site collections, as well as open them to 
additional conservation and exhibition opportunities. 

The Museum's online CIS, Arago, has enabled the public to view the 
national collection in the privacy of their homes. Implementation of the Web- 
based system has increased online visitation 40 percent. State-of-the-art 
technical enhancements to the system are planned for FY 2009, and more than 



55 



500 enhanced collection records and images will be added. Object descriptions 
and related information will continue to accompany each new collection record 
and image. The NPM remains dedicated to increasing the number of collection 
records and digital images added to its collections management systems. 

Additional resources will be directed toward maintaining NPM's 
information technology (IT) systems and infrastructure requirements to meet the 
goal of Enhanced Management Excellence. The Museum will continue to replace 
network hardware and related computer systems that support a host of 
programmatic and exhibition needs required to modernize IT systems. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (1 FT E and $125,000) 

• Redesign and modify requirements for the Systems at Work exhibit, 
the first of seven new permanent postal history exhibits 

• Finalize exhibit requirements and begin installation on phase two of 
the Hirzel Philatelic exhibit 

• Plan and design the Portrait of a Postal Worker exhibit 

• Plan for major renovation and expansion of the National Philatelic 
Gallery, with consideration for additional new space within the Postal 
Square building 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (6 FTEs and $583,000) 

• Continue to accession, catalogue, and scan new acquisitions and 
legacy collections, using the automated CIS, Arago 

• Continue to clean and enhance legacy collection records and update 
storage location information 

• Add 500 enhanced collection records and images to Arago, the 
Museum's online collections information system 

• Complete the cyclical collections inventory 

• Continue to survey, inventory, catalogue, and scan off-site collections 

• Improve accessibility to off-site collections 

• Create or enhance object and media records for significant philatelic 
materials selected for the National Collection, a new exhibit project 

• Continue to identify, re-house, and treat at-risk collections 

• Continue to process incoming object loans for new exhibitions and to 
make the national philatelic collection available to other museums 



56 



Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure ($25,000) 

• Maintain network hardware and related computer systems 

• Maintain software requirements for the automated CIS 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — The United States Postal Service provides 
the NPM with an annual grant, which supports nearly 75 percent of the 
Museum's core functions and operational costs. These costs include salaries 
and benefits, utilities, facility maintenance, exhibitions, research, education, and 
collection management programs. Fundraising initiatives continue to generate 
increased support from donor/sponsor-designated funds to cover new 
exhibitions, education projects, and special events. Several new Museum 
initiatives have generated additional trust funds for philatelic acquisitions, 
research, and conservation activities. 



57 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


273 


32,488 


5 


1,158 


15 


5,410 





225 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


283 


31,528 


6 


2,029 


22 


6,037 





20 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


283 


32,164 


6 


2,029 


22 


6,037 





20 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTEs 


$000 


FTEs 


$000 


FTEs 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


58 


5,330 


58 


5,446 





116 


Provide reference services and 
information to the public 


35 


4,216 


35 


4,308 





92 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class 
exhibitions 


41 


4,780 


41 


4,860 





79 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the 
national collections 


37 


4,043 


37 


4,129 





85 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of 
knowledge in the humanities 


20 


2,745 


20 


2,809 





64 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Improve the overall cleanliness and 
efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities 


14 


1,969 


14 


1,986 





17 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's 
information technology systems and 
infrastructure 


25 


3,559 


25 


3,626 





67 



58 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTEs 


$000 


FTEs 


$000 


FTEs 


$000 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture 
that is customer centered and 
results oriented 


34 


3,110 


34 


3,180 





71 


Ensure that the Smithsonian 
workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


4 


378 


4 


388 





10 


Modernize the Institution's financial 
management and accounting 
operations 


7 


734 


7 


751 





13 


Enhance the reputation of the 
Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local 
governments 


5 


405 


5 


415 





10 


Modernize and streamline the 
Institution's acquisitions 
management operations 


3 


259 


3 


266 





7 


Total 


283 


31,528 


283 


32,164 





636 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) is committed to 
advancing knowledge and understanding of the Native cultures of the Western 
hemisphere — past, present, and future — through partnerships with Native 
people and others. The Museum works to support the continuance of culture, 
traditional values, and transitions in contemporary Native life. 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, NMAI will focus its 
resources to support community-curated exhibits, and to present contemporary 
works of art to the public in the Changing Exhibitions Gallery in the National 
Mall Museum. These exhibits, along with significant educational and public 
programming, are expected to attract 1.5 million visitors annually. The offering 
of crafts demonstrations, educational presentations, seminars, and symposia 
throughout the building will ensure a meaningful visitor experience. Web content 
based on these programs will reach distant "virtual visitors" to the Museum, 
who may not be able to come to the East Coast but can avail themselves of 
technology and written materials developed at NMAI. Through its community- 
curated exhibitions and public programming, the Museum continues to present 
the contemporary voices of Native peoples to educate and inform the public 
while countering widespread stereotypes. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $636,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 



59 



MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, NMAI is directing its 
resources to: 1) activities that will result in increased visitation to the Mall 
Museum and the George Gustav Heye Center (GGHC) in New York City; 2) 
public programming that will encompass the indigenous peoples of the Western 
hemisphere (as mandated in the NMAI legislation) and that will demonstrate the 
presence of contemporary Native peoples today; and 3) outreach to Native 
communities, tribes, and organizations, through technology, internships, 
seminars, and symposia. 

Engagement efforts will continue to bring the Museum and its resources 
to audiences through media such as radio and the Web, and via innovative 
outreach and training programs. These contacts will link external communities 
to audiences at the Mall Museum through technology and involvement in 
planning and programming. The Film and Video Center will present the variety 
and excellence of Native productions at both the Mall Museum and the GGHC. 

In education, funding will continue for planning and operating programs 
seven days a week, including interpretive activities, cultural arts performances, 
demonstrations, and resource materials about Native American history and 
cultural heritage. The resource centers will continue to provide daily information 
about Native peoples of the Western hemisphere, including Hawaii, thereby 
providing opportunities to correct stereotyping and expand knowledge. Various 
tribal educational resources, including curricula, will be made available to 
teachers in the metropolitan Washington, DC area. 

In addition, staff will make research, film, video, audio, and photographic 
content developed for Mall exhibitions broadly available both in the Mall 
Museum and to Native American communities and public audiences, through the 
Web, printed materials, and collaborative activities with other groups and 
organizations. 

NMAI staff will continue to oversee group and school tour programs, and 
volunteers, and will also direct presentations in galleries and all public space and 
program areas to ensure maximum use of all the educational resources of the 
building to enhance the visitor experience. 

The goal of Enhanced Management Excellence will be addressed by 
efficiently and economically designating resources to meet the mission of the 
Museum, implementing the goals of the Smithsonian Institution, and enhancing 
the collection through the acquisition of contemporary works. 



60 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (58 FTEs and $5,446,000) 

• Continue to develop and administer a community services program 
plan and involve 10-15 new communities in program activities 

• Maintain a continual NMAI extension presence in Native communities 
by attending 10-15 outreach venues year-round; outreach activities 
will serve as a constant reminder in Indian Country about the services 
available through the art and internship programs, training activities, 
and other NMAI opportunities 

• Evaluate and refine the formal process for sending on tour three to 
four NMAI exhibitions to the communities represented in those 
exhibitions, including a community opening event, training in exhibition 
installation, and a community brochure or exhibition guide to assist the 
community in its own educational and outreach efforts 

• Evaluate and review the formal processes for community-curated 
exhibitions, working with one to two communities per year to loan 
NMAI objects to a tribal museum, cultural center, or related entity, 
including a community opening event, training in exhibition 
development and object curation, and related assistance for the 
community to develop its own educational and outreach efforts 

• Follow a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) to develop a two-set 
panel exhibition traveling show that has relevance for Native 
communities; under this proposal, one set of panels will travel to tribal 
museums, cultural centers, or related entities, and include a 
community opening event and general assistance for the community 
to develop its own educational and outreach efforts 

• Present (through the Cultural Arts Department within NMAI) at least 
six programs which serve the international community in and around 
the Washington, DC area, and at least three programs in collaboration 
with embassies from Latin American countries and Canada 

• Develop a public access Film and Video Center at the GGHC that 
supports access to and increases the awareness of the NMAI Film and 
Video Center and its collections 

• Develop and conduct a varied menu of tours, cultural demonstrations, 
teaching cart programs, family programming, and workshops for 
students and teachers 

• Build the Cultural Interpreters Program to include 20-30 volunteer 
interpreters 

• Develop university partnerships to strengthen the training program for 
the cultural interpreters 



61 



Arrange to have symposia and seminar staff host two significant 

symposia or seminars annually in support of the Museum as a place of 

civic engagement, including the Ball State University initiative serving 

more than 20 million students via satellite broadcasting 

Develop a Native Museum Alliance Network to facilitate the loan of 

NMAI objects to tribal museums and cultural centers 

Increase the GGHC's community outreach initiatives within the 

metropolitan New York City area, with special focus on targeted 

programs in the Pavilion to reach local Native populations 

Present diversified and ongoing publications and cultural arts programs 

(e.g., music, dance, storytelling, drama) to educate the public about 

the history and significance of Native cultures, including 10-15 

cultural arts programs each month that involve crafts demonstrations 

and theatrical performances 

Continue cultural arts programs and author programs, as well as 

collaborations with other Smithsonian bureaus and Washington-area 

cultural institutions, and supplemental programs for approximately 20 

schools in the local and regional communities 

Continue monthly programs presenting performing arts (at least one 

per month), arts and crafts demonstrations (at least one per month), 

and writers' programs (one per month). Programs in the Museum and 

in local communities will serve at least 30 schools 

Maintain a diversified and ongoing publications program to educate the 

public about the history and significance of Native cultures through 

the production of books, recordings, children's and educational 

materials, brochures, retail products, and other printed matter. Publish 

two exhibition-related books and three to five additional titles 

Conduct approximately 12 educational workshops annually for families 

and teacher audiences 

Implement a new website component to provide all Americans with 

educational resources tied to grade levels and national curriculum 

standards 

Extend electronic community-based outreach efforts to bring the 

Museum's resources to more American communities. Electronic 

information projects, videoconferencing, podcasts, and webcasts link 

communities to Museum activities and programming in Washington, 

DC and New York City 

Support multi-department use of a customer relationship management 

system to email electronic newsletters to subscribers to disseminate 

quarterly information about the Museum and its diverse programs. 

Increase electronic newsletter subscriptions by five percent through 

provision of relevant and personalized information 

Maintain a computer system that supports data collection from a wide 

variety of NMAI public program activities to contribute to an 



62 



Institution-wide system for assessing the effectiveness of educational 
programs 

• Increase the size of the Museum's Cultural Registry at a rate of 20 
percent per year, with a goal of 5,000 total and current records 

• Make media and text produced in the Virtual Museum Workshops 
available to the public 

Provide reference services and information to the public (35 FTEs and 
$4,308,000) 

• Respond to the needs of Native communities and serve as a national 
leader in the area of training in museum practice by refining internship, 
visiting professional, technical assistance, traditional artist, and 
workshop programs to strengthen their effectiveness and inclusiveness, 
as well as by serving 30-35 interns, four to five visiting professionals, 
one to two technical assistants, and conducting four workshops 

• Continue and maintain the Native Arts Program to incorporate the 
visiting artist, community arts symposium, and youth public art 
projects; maximize outreach efforts by developing opportunities in the 
area of community-based activities, Internet visibility, collaborations 
with public programs and publications; initiate a long-term 
sustainability strategy for the Native Arts Program; and expand 
programs with affiliated museum institutions, cultural centers, and 
indigenous artists to include four visiting artists, one community art 
symposium, and one public youth art project 

• Solidify the Native Radio Program to include broadcasts of Living 
Voices; maximize outreach efforts through annual productions of 
Living Voices which demonstrate relevant, effective, and compelling 
oral indigenous stories for local radio station distribution and for the 
worldwide Internet audience; and build partnerships with other Native 
media organizations, including Native Voices One, Koahnic 
Broadcasting, American Indian Radio on Satellite (AIROS), Aboriginal 
Voices Radio, and Radio Bilingue 

• Evaluate and refine requirements, and appropriately revise content via 
new programming and migration to electronic applications in the 
Washington, DC and New York City Interactive Learning Centers 
(ILCs). Renew public computing facilities by upgrading computer 
hardware to ensure that 95 percent of equipment operates 95 percent 
of the time during opening hours 

• Develop and incorporate recordings and other media materials from 
artists, community visitors, presenters, and Community and 
Constituent Services (department within NMAI) field projects, which 
are related to NMAI's public programs or outreach efforts, into the 
resource centers through interactive educational presentations; and 
collect program-related recordings, books, website information, and 
other resources for incorporation into the ILCs' delivery systems 



63 



Develop an integrated plan to use technological tools to expand 
connections and services to Native communities via the Web, 
including the Museum's collections resources, feature stories, and 
community training materials and classroom support (e.g., distance- 
education applications) 

Develop and maintain the handling of collections and one Discovery 
Box, which contains objects/materials for hands-on experience with 
Native American culture, for one year. The items are reproductions of 
objects that may be found in the exhibitions and they educate visitors 
about the relationship the objects have with Native people 
Maintain outreach to fourth-grade students visiting the 
Haudenosaunee Discovery Room to learn more about the Iroquois 
Tribe. Collaborate with the education department to develop teachers' 
workshops focusing on the Haudenosaunee 

Complete profiles for two to three underserved new communities on 
the Indigenous Geography website, including community training, 
media, and educational components 

Upgrade and maintain audiovisual and multi-media equipment and 
software to enable media unit staff to efficiently produce professional 
audio, video, and graphics to support department and NMAI programs 
Conduct 2-3 week-long Virtual Museum Workshops with Native 
students who access culturally relevant objects in the collections to 
provide virtual exhibits for the communities and the ILC 
Conduct one week-long Virtual Museum Workshop in Latin America at 
a local museum to provide training in approaches to content 
development with the active participation of indigenous groups. 
Conduct two videoconferencing programs with Native communities 
that provide access to culturally relevant objects in the NMAI 
collections; record the sessions for use in other museum and 
community projects; and acquire feedback from participants to 
develop an ongoing annual videoconferencing program 
Work with local schools to conduct one semester-long student project 
that connects Latin American immigrant students with NMAI 
collections to which they have cultural connections; and acquire 
feedback from the project to develop an annual education program 
that similar local schools may join 

Solidify and expand Latin American programming efforts, and develop 
a consistent and targeted program for Latin American constituencies, 
which includes internships, visiting professional appointments, radio, 
visiting artists, youth public art projects, and annual workshops 
alternating between virtual museum and museology themes 
Provide consistent and accurate translations of NMAI Web materials in 
Spanish, serving both constituents in Latin America and the Spanish- 
speaking public in the United States 



64 



• Maintain strong relationships with the international community in and 
around Washington, DC to develop relevant and interesting programming 
and serve constituent needs throughout the Western hemisphere 

• Manage and maintain all MOUs for the Museum, including monitoring of 
commitments and execution of deliverables 

• Sponsor a tribal museums conference 

• Initiate a formal community activity documentation program for all 
projects that uses photography, video, audio, and other media to capture 
the program and process in the community, and ensures that 
documentation and archiving standards are developed and implemented 
for future records and programs 

• Increase the GGHC's community outreach initiatives within the 
metropolitan New York City area, with special focus on targeted 
programs in the Pavilion to reach local Native populations 

• Collect and make accessible materials from at least 40-50 programs, 
including audio and video recordings, photographs, recorded interviews, 
and other resources per year to all relevant NMAI units and efforts. This 
includes archives, resource centers, websites, recordings, books, etc. 

• Develop non-commercial publications — in alternate text-file formats, 
including Portable Document Format (PDF) and Print On Demand (POD) — 
to support the activities of various Museum departments (e.g., Public 
Programs, Cultural Resources, and Community Services) and to promote 
outreach to the general public by heightening awareness of Native 
American life and educating the public about the history and significance 
of Native cultures 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions (41 FTEs and $4,860,000) 

• Continue to provide research support and assistance for developing 
exhibits and public programs based on NMAI's collections and intellectual 
resources. Support development of three exhibitions a year. Exhibits 
under development in FY 2009 include Treaties, Collections Survey, and 
Song for the Horse Nations. Provide websites for new exhibits 

• Provide daily technical support for exhibits, interactive kiosks, and 
NMAI's Lelawi Theater, replace and repair outdated equipment, and 
ensure that the kiosks and the theater are available for public access 95 
percent of the time 

• Expand and develop NMAI's website to provide in-depth content about all 
exhibitions and events in New York City and Washington, DC. Increase 
the number of website visits by five percent yearly 

• Install one major exhibition in the 8,500-square-foot Changing Gallery 

• Install exhibits that orient visitors to the building, grounds, and the 
Museum experience. These exhibits will be located in the Potomac 
rotunda, a central gathering place for live presentations, and a visitor 
information center at the point of entry to the Museum 



65 



• Provide a year-round exhibition program at the GGHC for three major 
galleries, and the Photo Corridor Gallery, and offer daily cultural 
interpreter programs and major monthly programs. Projects in FY 2009 
include Collections Survey, Song for the Horse Nations, and a major film 
festival 

• Organize four workshops and networking opportunities for Native film 
makers and Native media organizations with the television, film, and 
media industries 

• Collaborate with Native educational organizations, such as Oyate, the 
American Indian Library Association, National Indian Education 
Association, and the Canadian Arts Council. Work with them to identify 
video resource materials 

• Present a regular, ongoing schedule of programs encompassing Native 
cultural arts in collaboration with communities and curatorial teams that 
complement and expand on exhibition themes 

• Continue to produce and provide print and electronic pieces to enhance 
the visitor experience with general information about the Museum, its 
exhibitions, programs, and other services. These resources will be 
available in alternate formats, including Braille and Web access, and will 
be evaluated by the responsible department 

• Evaluate visitor services to ensure an effective orientation for public 
audiences at NMAI 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (37 FTEs and 
$4,129,000) 

• Provide information about NMAI's collections via a website. Review 
and update records for public access. Digitize objects needing higher 
quality digital images than those taken during the move of collections. 
Augment digitization, cataloguing, and electronic access to NMAI's 
collections resources. Provide public access to approximately 30,000 
collections items by September 2009 

• Continue to implement a pesticide research project to assess pesticide 
use in NMAI's ethnographic collections, in coordination with the 
Smithsonian's Museum Conservation Institute, leading to an enhanced 
understanding and actual use by Native communities to mediate the 
impact of contaminating materials 

• Provide consultation and assistance to domestic and international 
indigenous communities for the research, repatriation, and 
management of specific kinds of culturally sensitive collections, 
including six consultations, four traditional care visits, and two to 
three repatriations 

• Provide system development and customization to meet staff needs, 
specifically in the areas of repatriation and events, as well as support 
for data enhancement; and provide technical support for the integration 
of the digital asset management systems with the collections 



66 



information system (CIS) to augment digitization, cataloguing, and 
public access to NMAI's photo, audio, film, and video archival 
collections to represent living and vibrant indigenous cultures 
throughout the Western hemisphere 

• Augment virtual access to NMAI collections by including contextual 
information gained during NMAI programs with Native communities, and 
ensure the representation of Native voices within NMAI's foundation 
systems to serve the ends of cultural preservation and continuity in 
Native America 

• Develop procedures to include digital narratives provided by visiting 
researchers and Native experts to augment collections records 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities (20 FTEs and 
$2,809,000) 

• Strengthen integration of research units with content development of 
exhibitions and scholarly programs of the Museum to enhance 
participation in and inclusion of Native cultural and scientific 
knowledge 

• Develop the intellectual component of the collections by conducting 
collections-based studies which include Native viewpoints and 
meanings in their own terms to enhance existing electronic content, 
and increase the potential of the collections for future scientific inquiry 
and public use 

• Plan for an NMAI collaborative, Web-based toolset to add knowledge 
and context to both individual collections records as well as related 
groups of collections objects 

• Undertake research for publications and media products to generate 
educational resource materials in connection with the Museum's public 
programs 

• Continue ongoing research to add historic, geographic, and statistical 
content to all exhibitions and educational programs and resources 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

improve the overall cleanliness and efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities (14 FTEs and $1,986,000) 

• Provide maintenance and visitor support services for a seven-day-a- 
week operation open to the public at GGHC in New York City 

• Provide ongoing oversight and management of all NMAI facilities, 
including maintenance, security, and visitor support, in coordination with 
appropriate Smithsonian Institution offices and the General Services 
Administration 



67 



• Increase staff awareness of and involvement in safety, and improve the 
Museum's ratings on the annual management evaluation and technical 
review of NMAI facilities 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (25 FTEs and $3,626,000) 

• Ensure that NMAI personnel can rely on IT systems in three different 
locations (New York, Maryland, and Washington, DC) to undertake daily 
work activities. NMAI technical staff work locally to provide secure, 
reliable, and efficient systems, meeting federal standards, with less than 
one percent downtime 

• Maintain three computer rooms, internal networks, servers, and Museum- 
based applications, including collections and digital asset management, 
research, conservation, archives, electronic signage, welcome desks, 
group reservations, public programs, interactive exhibits, webcasting, 
distance education, registries of cultural interpreters, community services 
events, as well as secure significant digital resources. Information and 
technology specialists work closely with NMAI staff to analyze processes 
and determine where economies of scale, integration across functions, 
and other efficiencies can be achieved 

• Maintain NMAI project and program management systems to effectively 
manage and coordinate programs across organizational lines, manage 
capacity, and ensure availability of staff, space, and fund-based resources 

• Work with the Office of the Chief Information Officer's (OCIO) initiative 
to implement a secure wireless network 

• Upgrade and maintain a wide variety of foundation systems such as 
CIS, the digital asset management system, the Events Management 
System, and NMAI's intranet and public applications; replace outdated 
systems and equipment; and enhance system storage and security 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (34 FTEs and $3, 180,000) 

• Align, integrate, and manage NMAI's physical, financial, human, 
management, and technological resources and systems to ensure 
effectiveness and measurable productivity in all aspects of the Museum's 
operations 

• Provide effective and responsible fiscal management of NMAI's resources 
to meet all of the changing needs, obligations, and priorities of NMAI and 
the Smithsonian 

• Develop and maintain training plans for all staff members; complete 
annual staff appraisal and performance plans with 100 percent 
participation; complete annual security training for all staff with 100 
percent participation; and provide staff with the results of a biennial 
NMAI employee survey 

• Evaluate programs to refine processes, better meet constituent needs, 
and guide future planning 



68 



Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (4 FTEs and $388,000) 

• Foster and sustain a productive work environment that supports the 
recruitment, retention, and recognition of NMAI's staff 

• Foster and sustain a productive and supportive work environment for 
NMAI that values initiative, creativity, and teamwork, and that reflects an 
awareness of and sensitivity to Native culture, values, and protocols 

• Manage an active, supportive, and responsive human resources operation 
within NMAI, including recruitment, training, implementation of 
disciplinary actions, time and attendance tracking, and maintenance of 
performance plans and appraisals 

• Provide special training opportunities for NMAI staff to gain and expand 
knowledge and proficiency in key areas related to their individual work 
and career goals, in a manner consistent with NMAI needs and priorities 

• Foster and implement human resources policies and procedures to recruit 
and retain a diverse workforce 

• Provide training and orientation to staff to ensure their knowledge level is 
sufficient to support programmatic efforts 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (7 FTEs and $751,000) 

• Manage all NMAI-related budgeting activities on an integrated basis, 
including support and technical assistance to NMAI staff and provision of 
information to the Smithsonian Institution, Office of Management and 
Budget, and Congress, for the operation of the Mall Museum 

• Provide effective and responsive fiscal management to meet the changing 
needs, obligations, and priorities of NMAI and the Institution, including 
the implementation of the new SI inventory program 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (5 FTEs and $415,000) 

• Continue to maintain high visibility in the press to ensure positive NMAI 
reviews in the local, national, international, and Indian Country media by 
encouraging editorials and coverage of exhibits, programs, and initiatives 

• Focus on programming for Native populations in the Western hemisphere 

• Manage ongoing and proactive outreach programs, including public 
relations and media programs to enhance the Museum's visibility 
nationally, internationally, and among Native peoples 

• Continue to respond in a professional and timely manner to inquiries from 
the press 



69 



Modernize and streamline the Institution 's acquisitions management 
operations (3 FTEs and $266,000) 

• Manage all NMAI procurement and travel on an integrated basis, including 
technical procurement assistance and processing of all procurement and 
travel documentation 

• Foster diversity in the procurement process 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support salary and 
benefit costs for the museum director. Donor/sponsor-designated funds 
support salaries and benefits for development staff; publications and special 
events for exhibition openings; costs related to specific programs and 
projects, including educational programs, advertising, production of 
fundraising proposals, member- and donor-related special events; and 
outreach activities. 



70 



ARCHIVES OF AMERICAN ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


17 


1,700 


1 


264 


17 


1,275 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


19 


1,739 


1 


342 


25 


1,771 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


19 


1,793 


1 


342 


25 


1,418 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 





19 





11 





-8 


Provide reference services and information 


6 


397 


4 


241 


-2 


-156 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


2 


81 


2 


59 





-22 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


7 


826 


10 


1,163 


3 


337 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 





14 





14 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


1 


159 


3 


305 


2 


146 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


1 


107 








-1 


-107 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


2 


136 








-2 


-136 


Total 


19 


1,739 


19 


1,793 





54 



71 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian's Archives of American Art (AAA) enlivens the 
extraordinary human stories behind America's most significant art and 
artists. With more than 16 million items, it is the world's largest and most 
widely used resource dedicated to collecting and preserving papers and 
primary records of the visual arts in America. Constantly growing in range 
and depth, ever increasing in accessibility to its many audiences, it is a 
vibrant, unparalleled and essential resource for the appreciation, enjoyment 
and understanding of art in America. 

To achieve the Institution's goal of Increased Public Engagement, the 
AAA continues with its ambitious six-year program, begun in 2005, to 
digitize a significant portion of its more than 50-year accumulation of 
resources. At its completion, the project will greatly increase public access 
to the collections. AAA's website will continue to be developed to improve 
delivery of unprecedented numbers of new digital files, descriptive 
information, engaging content, online exhibitions, subject-focused guides, 
and reference services. AAA's Lawrence A. Fleischman Gallery in the Donald 
W. Reynolds Center reaches new audiences as never before. The results of 
the Preservation and Assessment Survey conducted between FY 2004- 
2008 will be used to prioritize collection processing and preservation 
activities to achieve the Institution's goal of Improved Stewardship of the 
collections. The goal of Enhanced Management Excellence will be met by 
assessing and enhancing staff development and increasing oversight of 
internal controls. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $54,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the Institution's goal of Increased Public Engagement, the 
AAA is directing its resources to optimize its presence in the Donald W. 
Reynolds Center by mounting compelling exhibitions in its Lawrence A. 
Fleischman Gallery and offering a series of related gallery talks. Among the 
planned exhibits are Six Degrees of Separation, November 1 , 2008 to 
February 28, 2009; Money Matters, February 7 to May 30, 2009; and an 
exhibition guest-curated by an artist, June 7 to September 27, 2009. In 
FY 2009, the Archives will promote Smithsonian Arts collaborations by 
borrowing works of art from the Smithsonian art museums. 

Development of the Archives' informational kiosk located within the 
Fleischman Gallery, as well as related website content, will optimize the 



72 



visitors' experiences of the exhibitions and reveal the inter-relationships 
among AAA's resources and the collections of the Smithsonian's art and 
other museums. 

In addition, to reach new audiences, the AAA will continue to collaborate 
with the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) and the National Portrait 
Gallery (NPG) on educational projects such as "Posters-to-Go". In FY 2008 this 
project will produce and distribute 500 poster portfolios to middle and high 
school classes that address themes about U.S. history. AAA will also co- 
sponsor symposia with Smithsonian Arts and outside organizations to raise its 
national profile. Through these public programs, online versions of its 
exhibitions, and lending documents to exhibitions in museums and other 
institutions worldwide, the AAA will continue to widen its audience and provide 
a greater understanding of the history of visual arts in the United States. 

In FY 2009, approximately 50 collections representing 500 linear feet 
of papers of painters, sculptors, critics, and collectors will be processed, 
resulting in new, fully searchable finding aids added to the AAA's website. 
Of these, 25 collections will be digitized using state-of-the-art equipment, 
and in combination with digitization for reference, exhibitions, loans, and 
special projects, nearly 325,000 digital files will be produced. The increase in 
digitization will result from AAA's six-year digitization project funded by the 
Terra Foundation for American Art. In addition, the Terra Foundation will also 
enable AAA to build on its existing Web-based Guides system for providing 
new access routes to AAA's collections by expanding thematic, topical, 
chronological, and geographical pathways to collections; increasing 
collaboration with Smithsonian Arts; and increasing direct engagement with 
the public through innovative Web technologies such as social tagging and 
podcasting. 

The AAA website will be the locus for public engagement through the 
timely release of information and increasingly interactive access to AAA's 
online reference services section. AAA will continue to increase visits to its 
website by adding finding aids to processed collections, thousands of images 
of digitized collections and microfilm, and oral history interviews with 
American art dealers (funded by the Widgeon Point Charitable Foundation 
and the Art Dealers Association of America). 

The AAA's resources will continue to support work related to the 
systematic survey of collections begun in FY 2004, which is designed to 
identify preservation needs, determine the degree of potential research value, 
and target audiences and other factors needed to formulate processing 
priorities that will increase the number of finding aids for collections 
accessible via the website. The AAA will improve stewardship by continuing 



73 



development of its internal digitization and Collection Information Systems 
Database, thereby ensuring proper collections documentation and supporting 
increasingly complex workflow. These efforts will enable AAA to encompass 
the life cycle of a collection and oral history from pre-acquisition to storage 
and access. AAA's investment in the digitization of its collections will be 
preserved by reviewing requirements and implementing a standards-based 
digital assets storage and preservation system. 

To achieve the Institution's goal of Strengthened Research, the 
Archives will convene a national advisory committee to support its ongoing 
efforts to acquire high-priority collections. 

The goal of Enhanced Management Excellence will be addressed by 
continuing to implement the goals of the Smithsonian, thereby ensuring its 
workforce is efficient and skilled, and by adopting best practices to 
safeguard Smithsonian resources. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture ($11,000) 

• Continue to expand AAA's audiences through a national touring 
exhibition in collaboration with Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service (SITES) 

• Develop co-sponsored symposia with Smithsonian art organizations 
and outside institutions 

• Continue to develop gallery talks that focus on current exhibitions 
in the Lawrence A. Fleischman Gallery at the Donald W. Reynolds 
Center to raise public awareness and visibility of the Archives 

Provide reference services and information to the public (4 FTEs and 
$241,000) 

• Collaborate with Smithsonian Institution Libraries and Smithsonian 
art organizations to develop resource guides to art-related research 
materials that will enhance access to collections 

• Expand public access to AAA's vast collection by increasing 
website and in-person visits through continuation of the Terra 
Foundation for American Art's six-year program to digitize 
collections, which will add 325,000 new digital files representing 
both fully digitized collections and individual items from collections 
through a Collections Online interface 

• Increase by 30-50 the number of online finding aids 

• Increase by 20-30 the number of oral history interviews accessible 
online 



74 



• Enhance the website with improved website technologies and tools 
to attract more visitors and promote and enhance their level of 
engagement with the Archives' programs 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (2 FTEs and $59,000) 

• Produce three original exhibitions for the Lawrence A. Fleischman 
Gallery at the Reynolds Center (one will complement exhibitions at 
either SAAM or NPG) 

• Produce three original exhibitions for the AAA's New York 
Research Center 

• Continue AAA's survey of public responses to its exhibitions in the 
Lawrence A. Fleischman Gallery to assess and improve exhibition design 

• Integrate the Web-based informational kiosk and related technologies 
into exhibition design in the Lawrence A. Fleischman Gallery 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (10 FTEs and $1, 163,000) 

• Continue to address critical processing and preservation activities 
identified in AAA's systematic survey of collections 

• Enhance the digitization and Collection Information Systems 
Database and its staff interface to ensure proper collections 
documentation, and to support increasingly complex workflow that 
encompasses acquisition, physical and legal control, processing, 
preservation, digitization, and Web access 

• Protect AAA's investment in digitization by advancing its 
implementation of a standards-based digital assets storage and 
preservation system 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through 
original research ($14,000) 

• Conduct original research resulting in at least one monograph, 
article, or Web publication based on AAA resources 

• Work effectively with a national advisory committee to collect 
high-priority papers and produce at least 25 new oral history 
interviews of enduring historical value 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (3 FTEs and $305,000) 

• Continue to assess and enhance the skills of employees so that 
staff provide more efficient and effective levels of services both 
internally and externally 

• Review current administrative policies and procedures to improve 
effective programmatic and financial management of all resources 



75 



NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support AAA's 
development office, including salaries and benefits. Donor/sponsor- 
designated funds provide support for costs related to specific programs and 
projects, including exhibitions, internships, collections processing, publication 
of the Archives of American Art Journal, and the digitization program funded 
by the Terra Foundation for American Art. 



76 



ARTHUR M. SACKLER GALLERY/FREER GALLERY OF ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


48 


5,679 








57 


10,543 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


57 


5,787 





434 


65 


12,480 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


57 


5,937 





434 


65 


12,480 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


8 


812 


8 


834 





22 


Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


8 


812 


8 


833 





21 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


15 


1,523 


15 


1,562 





39 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


14 


1,421 


14 


1,458 





37 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


4 


406 


4 


417 





11 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


3 


305 


3 


312 





7 


Management Operations 














Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


5 


508 


5 


521 





13 


Total 


57 


5,787 


57 


5,937 





150 



77 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (FSG) 
celebrate the artistic traditions of Asia and are widely regarded as one of the 
world's most important centers for collections of Asian art. The museums 
collect, study, exhibit, and preserve exemplary works of Asian art, as well as 
works by Whistler and other American artists represented in Charles Lang 
Freer's original gift. The combined resources of the museums are directed 
toward programs that advance understanding of the arts of Asia and of the 
museums' collection. 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, FSG will 
continue to maintain momentum in hosting exhibitions of international 
importance and complementary public programs, as well as expand the 
number and range of exhibitions and object loans offered to other museums 
and cultural and educational institutions throughout the nation and 
worldwide. Associated with these activities will be a continued emphasis on 
exhibition-related scholarly research and an increased Web presence. 

To meet the goal of Strengthened Research, FSG will devote resources 
to maintain the outstanding conservation and scientific research programs 
currently in place for the analysis, study, and conservation of Asian art and 
objects. Scholarly research on the collections, as well as broader research on 
Asian art and culture, will be further enhanced by maintaining a dedicated 
position to oversee scholarly programs and publications. 

To support the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, FSG will 
continue to participate in programs designed to improve the Institution's 
management and financial systems, and continue to evaluate and modernize 
its internal organization and systems. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $1 50,000 
for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, FSG has 
developed a long-range strategic plan that focuses on an aggressive, multi- 
year strategy of high-profile exhibitions and research projects to raise 
attendance and reassert FSG's pre-eminence in the field of Asian art. 

For FY 2009, FSG will present three major loan exhibitions and 
continue its contemporary art programming, as well as reinvigorate and re- 
emphasize its thematic exhibitions drawn from FSG's permanent collections. 



78 



The year will begin with Falnama: The Book of Omens, a major exhibition 
that focuses on a series of very unusual 16th and 17th century royal 
manuscripts from Turkey and Iran, which have not been studied despite their 
importance. The Falnama is the earliest book of its kind and features 
spectacular painted illustrations. The manuscripts will be complemented by 
textiles, ceramics, and metalwork, and will offer new insight into the rich 
artistic exchange between the Ottoman and Safavid empires at the height of 
their political rivalry. 

In the summer of 2009, FSG will present a major exhibition of Tang 
dynasty treasures that were discovered in a shipwreck off the coast of 
Indonesia in 1998. Containing more than 53,000 items, the find was unlike 
any other recent discovery because of the number and type of items found. 
Among the ceramics, a cache of exquisite gold and silver items stand out 
and will interest scholars of Chinese art as well as capture the imagination of 
the general public. FY 2009 will close with a major exhibition of modern and 
contemporary Japanese prints. The exhibition will showcase works from the 
permanent collection, along with selected works from an important private 
collection, resulting in a comprehensive survey of modern Japanese 
printmaking. Traveling exhibitions will also play a major role in FY 2009 
when FSG circulates two major loan exhibitions, Garden and Cosmos: The 
Royal Paintings of Jodhpur and Falnama: The Book of Omens, to national 
and international venues. 

To strengthen collegial ties and offer a regular program on the arts of 
Asia to new audiences, FSG will continue to develop a network of museum 
partners, often where collections and/or areas of expertise are lacking. This 
Asia in America program showcases the holdings of important American 
institutional collections of Asian art through an ongoing series of exhibitions 
presented at the Sackler, which will strengthen ties with other cultural 
institutions throughout the nation and with local audiences. 

To provide greater access to high-quality educational resources, FSG 
will be looking more carefully at state, county, and municipal learning 
mandates to ensure that FSG's programs support curricula. In addition, FSG 
will devote more effort to developing long-lasting teaching materials based 
on the FSG's world-renowned collections, and placing more educational 
resources on the FSG website to make it the premier online resource in the 
United States for information on the arts of Asia. 

In the area of collections management, FSG plans to increase public 
access to the collections through digital technology, and to ensure data 
integrity in the digital collections management system. Additionally, the FSG 
will work toward effectively using grants for students to work on collections 



79 



management records, providing for timelier and greater public access to the 
entire collection. FSG will implement recommendations from the current 
space allocation studies, thereby promoting efficient use of storage space 
and access to the collection by scholars and the public. Plans have been 
prepared to increase storage in the library, which is much used by the public, 
scholars, and staff, and which will enable FSG to avoid off-site storage for a 
major part of the collection. 

Improvements in visitor services are expected during FY 2009, 
primarily as a result of visitor surveys and improved signage and way-finding. 
FSG expects to survey visitors to determine their interest in the use of 
increased technology in exhibitions, as well as in the use of hand-held, 
electronic, self-guided tours. FSG will continue to focus on making its 
collections accessible to the public through its website. The website will 
offer an expanded number of objects for viewing and research by national 
and international audiences. FSG is also studying several of the Sackler 
galleries to determine whether they can accommodate a future orientation 
center. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, FSG will continue to 
devote resources to its internationally renowned conservation department 
and laboratory. Research work in the analysis, study, conservation, and long- 
term preservation of Asian art objects and materials of Asian art will help 
guarantee that objects from FSG's collections and many other museums 
remain accessible to future generations. In FY 2009, curators and 
researchers will continue to study and publish new research on the 
collections, including the recent gift of Japanese prints from the 
Robert O. Muller collection, ancient Chinese art donated by Dr. Paul Singer, 
the extensive collection of ancient Chinese jades, and the recently acquired 
collection of Japanese books. In addition, work on the five volumes of the 
Freer's collection of Song and Yuan paintings will continue. 

The addition in 2006 of a dedicated staff person to oversee and 
coordinate scholarly research and publications has enabled FSG to continue 
to foster closer links with university partners, such as the University of 
Michigan, oversee the fellowship program, organize scholarly conferences, 
and supervise the publication of the Ars Orientalis journal and a newly 
revived scholarly monograph series. Research Fellows will work on projects 
of special interest, as well as conduct research on FSG's permanent 
collection. In addition, FSG plans to present at least one symposium for 
serious art collectors, where curators will comment on collectors' objects, an 
investment that FSG hopes will open doors for future donations to enhance 
the collections. To safeguard the conservation department's reputation as 
one of the world's finest scientific research and conservation centers in 



80 



Asian art, FSG also will begin a program to modernize its equipment 
inventory through upgrades, enhancements, or replacement of outdated 
equipment. 

To meet the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, FSG expects 
to play a continuing leadership role in developing sophisticated collections 
management systems. In addition, as implementation of the new Institution- 
wide financial and human resources systems is expanded, it is anticipated 
that they will result in improved administrative efficiencies and reporting 
mechanisms within FSG. This will enable FSG to improve accountability by 
linking the strategic plans and goals of the museums directly to departmental 
activities and outputs to ensure that resources are effectively deployed and 
managed. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (8 FTEs and $834, 000) 

• Increase the number of attendees at family programs by 10 percent 
from FY 2008 

• Use the FY 2008 visitor survey results to implement at least two 
recommended improvements to self-guided tours of the permanent 
collection 

• Use the FY 2008 visitor survey results to implement at least two 
recommended improvements in visitor services 

Provide reference services and information to the public (8 FTEs and 
$833,000) 

• Develop one new curriculum based on state-mandated guidelines 
and distribute the curriculum to schools by the end of FY 2009 

• Increase by five percent the number of website visitors from FY 2008 

• Increase by 10 percent the number of FSG object images available 
for viewing on the website from FY 2008 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (15 FTEs and $1,562,000) 

• Mount three major exhibitions to increase visitation from the 
FY 2008 attendance level 

• Rotate works in accordance with conservation guidelines, 
emphasizing recent additions to the permanent collections 

• Provide family-friendly educational programming for each major 
exhibition 

• Place FSG objects in at least two non-FSG exhibitions at other 
institutions in FY 2009 

• Publish exhibition-related materials as a resource for scholars, 
educators, and the general public 



81 



Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (14 FTEs and $1,458,000) 

• Initiate at least one new fellowship or scholarly award in FY 2009 

• Raise the profile of the conservation department through a five 
percent increase in publications from FY 2008 

• Complete conservation on at least 100 collection objects 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through 
original research (4 FTEs and $417,000) 

• Study and publish new research on recent collections, including 
Dr. Singer's gift of ancient Chinese art; the extensive collection of 
ancient Chinese jades; the Freer collection of Song and Yuan 
paintings; and the Muller collection of Japanese prints 

• Organize one symposium for serious art collectors 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (3 FTEs and $312,000) 

• Modernize and standardize all IT desktop and peripheral platforms 
to single-faceted footprints 

• Initiate desktop and peripheral support for all Macintosh Apple 
workstations 

• Finalize installation of the latest software for The Museum System 
(TMS), FSG's collections information system 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (5 FTEs and $521,000) 

• Use the new and enhanced Enterprise Resource Planning system 
modules to enhance management reports for senior staff and 
members of the Board of the Freer and Sackler Galleries 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust and donor/sponsor 
designated funds are generated from memberships, museum shop sales, 
special events, unrestricted and restricted gifts and grants, and endowment 
income. The Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery are highly 
dependent upon nonappropriated sources to fund the programs and support 
necessary to provide the quality of exhibitions, programs, and publications 
expected by visitors and scholars. 



82 



COOPER-HEWITT, NATIONAL DESIGN MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


32 


3,133 


27 


3,278 


15 


5,098 





34 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


39 


3,336 


32 


4,351 


21 


5,711 





20 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


39 


3,957 


32 


4,351 


21 


5,110 





20 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


3 


258 


3 


239 





-19 


Provide reference services and information 


1 


100 


1 


115 





15 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


4 


389 


4 


283 





-106 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


9 


918 


9 


1,576 





658 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in humanities 


3 


224 


4 


312 


1 


88 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient 
operation of Smithsonian facilities 


11 


790 


10 


714 


-1 


-76 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


2 


205 


2 


247 





42 


Management Operations 














Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


1 


98 


1 


101 





3 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


4 


288 


4 


293 





5 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


1 


66 


1 


77 





1 1 


Total 


39 


3,336 


39 


3,957 





621 



83 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum (CHNDM), located in New York 
City, is the only museum in the nation dedicated exclusively to historic and 
contemporary design. Its collection is international in scope and encompasses 
250,000 objects representing 24 centuries of design, from China's Han Dynasty 
(200 B.C.) to the present. The Museum presents compelling perspectives on the 
impact of design on daily life through active educational programs, exhibitions, 
and publications. 

As the design authority of the United States, CHNDM's programs and 
exhibitions demonstrate how design shapes culture and history — past, present, 
and future. To achieve the Institution's goal of Increased Public Engagement, 
the Museum will continue its dynamic exhibition programming and active roster 
of educational and public programs, as well as expand the number of programs 
offered in venues outside the New York metropolitan area in 2009. Together, 
these programs will help CHNDM engage larger, more diverse audiences, and 
fulfill its mission to serve as a catalyst for design education, both nationally and 
internationally. To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, the 
Museum will devote resources to foster greater understanding of the role of 
design in everyday life and its impact on shaping the built environment of past 
and future centuries; and to encourage the "by-products" of design thinking — 
such as creative problem solving and team working — in other disciplines and 
areas of life, through an interactive, engaging online experience. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $621,000. 
Included is an increase of $82,000 for necessary pay for existing staff funded 
under this line item, and $539,000 for rent for leased collections storage space, 
which is justified in the Mandatory Costs section of the budget. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, CHNDM will 
concentrate its resources on maintaining a world-class exhibition program that 
will attract diverse audiences and prove unique in its balancing of historic and 
contemporary design shows. Each of the upcoming exhibitions in FY 2009 will 
feature significant objects and original theses, and will have a strong appeal to a 
diverse audience of visitors. The major exhibitions will be China Constructs, 
Felt, and Deutsche Werkbund. Smaller surveys of design will include the Shazia 
Sikander and Quicktakes exhibitions. In conjunction with these exhibitions and 
design surveys, the Museum will offer a series of public programs, such as 
workshops, studio visits, international conferences, and study tours, to engage 
and inspire the general public as well as professional, youth, and education- 
oriented audiences. The Museum will also continue to respond to requests for 
exhibition loans. 

84 



As part of its national outreach effort, CHNDM plans to expand its "City 
of Neighborhoods" program in three to five venues outside the New York City 
area in FY 2009, including Stanford, California; Winterthur, Delaware; and 
Boston, Massachusetts. This innovative program brings architects, educators, 
and planners together to extend the classroom into the community and apply 
design education to a neighborhood concept, enabling teachers to take this 
model back to the classroom for development of similar programs for K-1 2 
students and for after-school programs. The program's goal is to use design to 
promote community awareness and to involve young people in positive 
community change. 

The Museum will also continue to offer an expanded Summer Design 
Institute program on the West Coast as well as in New York City. This program, 
which will celebrate its fifteenth anniversary in 2009, is also geared to K-1 2 
and design educators, and draws a steadily increasing national and international 
audience each year. Outreach will be further enhanced by a continuing effort to 
lend major works to other venues in the United States and abroad. 

Resources will continue to support exhibition-related scholarly research to 
create the most innovative and educational exhibitions for the public to view. 
The Museum anticipates that important new research will be published in 
conjunction with each major exhibition presented in FY 2009. Catalogues also 
may be published for the China Constructs, Felt, and Deutsche Werkbund 
exhibitions, depending on whether private publication funding can be secured. 

CHNDM hopes to make its educational opportunities available to a 
broader audience in FY 2009 through greater use of technology. In particular, 
the Museum plans to devote resources to increasing the accessibility of its 
educational programs through video and the Internet. This will include 
components of the "City of Neighborhoods" and Summer Design Institute 
programs to support the growing network of program participants and to make 
program resources available to broader audiences. 

To improve the stewardship of the national design collection, the Museum 
will catalogue and put images of an additional 3,000 objects in the electronic 
collections information system and on the Web by the end of FY 2009. In 
addition, the Museum will continue to support an on-site graduate program on 
the history of decorative arts, which will enable students and scholars to access 
objects in CHNDM's collections. In FY 2009, a process will be implemented to 
ensure that objects will receive required conservation prior to being moved into 
renovated, climate-controlled storage, as well as when objects require constant 
attention to maintain their stability. The Museum will also complete moving a 
majority of its stored collections off site to make room for the privately funded 
renovation of the mansion that is scheduled to begin in FY 2009 and continue 



85 



through the beginning of FY 201 1 . This major renovation will significantly 
increase exhibition space. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, the Museum 
expects to conduct a review of on-site and off-site storage, redesign CHNDM's 
website to create a world-class online resource for design education, and 
streamline financial systems to improve the efficiency of the procurement 
process. In addition, the Museum will continue to publicize its offerings online, 
as well as in the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Journal and in the Museum's 
spring and fall program brochures. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (3 FTEs and $239,000) 

• Offer 60 public programs, including international conferences, hands- 
on workshops, studio visits, and presentations in conjunction with 
major exhibitions and smaller design surveys 

• Create educational content that will be available nationwide through 
the Online National Design Museum 

• Develop online communities to further the integration of design into 
the K-12 curriculum 

Provide reference services and information to the public (1 FTE and 
$115,000) 

• Develop public relations campaigns for exhibitions, public programs, 
and other CHNDM activities to increase awareness of the Museum and 
attract additional visitors 

• Attract 2.5 to 3 million website visitors 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (4 FTEs and $283,000) 

• Mount three exhibitions on historic and contemporary design while 
undergoing a major privately funded renovation 

• Send two exhibitions to six museums in other states 

• Attract 210,000 visitors to the Museum's exhibitions 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (9 FTEs and $1,576,000) 

• Catalogue 3,000 objects in the electronic collections information 
system and make images of these objects available on the Museum's 
website 

• Implement a new process to ensure that objects receive required 
conservation prior to being moved into renovated, climate-controlled 
storage 

• Move and maintain collections off site to accommodate the mansion's 
renovation 



86 



Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities (4 FTEs and 
$312,000) 

• Publish two exhibition catalogues based on research of the collections 

• Produce one catalogue for a smaller exhibition based on research of 
the collections 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities (10 FTEs and $714,000) 

• Conduct reviews of on-site and off-site storage 

• Provide maintenance of the facility and upkeep of the grounds while 
making continued progress in improving the level of cleanliness 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (2 FTEs and $247,000) 

• Redesign the Museum's website to create a world-class online 
resource for design education 

• Implement a user account system for shopping, membership, program 
registration, special events, ticket sales, National Design Awards 
nominations, internships, and Summer Design Institute applications 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (1 FTE and $101,000) 

• Monitor Museum staffing and organization to ensure efficiency 

• Work closely with central Smithsonian offices to implement new 
management systems and processes 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting systems 
(4 FTEs and $293,000) 

• Develop management reports for Board members, the director, and 
senior management of Cooper-Hewitt 

• Develop and present interim and year-end financial information to the 
Board and senior management within eight weeks of fiscal-year 
closure 

• Manage Museum renovation budget 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments (1 
FTE and $77,000) 

• Produce the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Journal and the Museum's 
spring and fall program brochures that publicize the offerings of the 
Museum 



87 



FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $621,000. This 
amount includes $82,000 for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this 
line item, and $539,000 for rent for leased collections storage space, both of 
which are further justified in the Mandatory Costs section of the budget. 

• ($539,000) This increase provides the balance of funds needed to 
cover the annual costs of leased space to relocate CHNDM's 
collections, as well as library and conservation laboratories. In 
FY 2008, CHNDM will undergo a privately funded $42 million 
renovation to increase exhibition space. Master plans include an 
off-site facility that will provide space for collections and library 
storage, and a conservation laboratory. The FY 2008 appropriation 
includes $240,000 for one-half of the annual lease costs for an 
estimated 15,000 square feet of storage space. CHNDM space 
requirements subsequently increased to 21,000 square feet and 
space is being identified in the New York/New Jersey area. The 
requested $539,000 will provide the remaining balance of 
estimated annual lease costs ($779,000), thus enabling CHNDM to 
expand exhibition space and library reading rooms at the Museum. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds are generated from 
membership, Museum shop sales, admissions, special events, and unrestricted 
donations. These revenues support exhibitions, publications, and general 
operating expenses. Donor/sponsor-designated funds support specific programs 
and projects. 



88 



HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


44 


4,267 


2 


813 


10 


7,799 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


47 


4,193 


2 


970 


13 


6,669 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


47 


4,294 


2 


970 


13 


6,364 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


6 


573 


6 


595 





22 


Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


4 


324 


4 


335 





1 1 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


17 


1,367 


17 


1,391 





24 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


7 


754 


7 


776 





22 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


2 


272 


2 


294 





22 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


5 


405 


5 


405 








Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


1 


87 


1 


87 








Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


4 


324 


4 


324 








Modernize and streamline the Institution's 
acquisitions management operations 


1 


87 


1 


87 








Total 


47 


4,193 


47 


4,294 





101 



89 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (HMSG) is a leading voice 
for contemporary art and culture, and provides a national platform for the art 
and artists of our time. The Museum seeks to share the transformative power of 
modern and contemporary art with audiences at all levels of awareness and 
understanding by creating meaningful, personal experiences in which art, artists, 
audiences, and ideas converge. HMSG enhances public understanding and 
appreciation of contemporary art through acquisition, exhibitions, education and 
public programs, conservation, and research. 

HMSG dedicates a significant portion of its resources to the Institution's 
goal of Increased Public Engagement, specifically by producing a compelling 
array of exhibitions and public programs based on its collections and loaned 
works of international modern and contemporary artists. HMSG resources also 
support national and local outreach initiatives through community development 
projects, website development, catalogues and brochures, outgoing loans, 
collaborations with other museums, and traveling exhibitions. Associated with 
these activities is a continued emphasis on the refinement, care, and 
management of the national collections. 

To further the goal of Strengthened Research, the Museum will continue 
to emphasize the development of educational materials, public programs, 
collections — particularly in the area of conservation of works in new media — 
and exhibitions based on scholarly research. 

The Museum will continue key initiatives and expand activities to pursue 
the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence. The Museum will sustain 
projects to deliver unique cultural experiences for diverse audiences, and carry 
on work to improve visitor amenities and way-finding. HMSG will streamline 
financial reporting and procurement processes to improve oversight and control. 
In addition, the Museum will expand the range of its media outreach to promote 
broader international awareness of HMSG as a premier contemporary art and 
culture center. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate reflects an increase of $101,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To engage and inspire diverse audiences, HMSG will sustain its program 
offerings that enable educators, families, and young people to understand and 
explore the permanent collection in unexpected ways, and to supplement 
personal arts studies. The Museum will offer an enhanced open-house event to 



90 



educators that, along with the regular teacher workshops throughout the year, 
will help teachers incorporate contemporary art themes from HMSG exhibitions 
into their curricula. Family workshops geared to a younger audience and led by 
practicing artists will offer hands-on components and enable children of diverse 
backgrounds and ages to experience the visual arts. In addition, HMSG will 
upgrade the quality of information resources reaching the public. The quarterly 
magazine, which already includes educational information about exhibitions, art 
works, and programs, will be redesigned to better lead readers to additional 
learning opportunities on the public website. The website itself will be enhanced 
with the latest media-viewing capabilities to let users customize their own 
personal educational experiences. The visitor will become a contributing 
participant in the development of programs through the incorporation of regular 
on-site and Web survey results. 

To help visitors focus on their personal experiences with art, HMSG will 
continue to install better signage to assist the public's exploration of the 
galleries. The Museum will present "Meet the Artist" programs that will provide 
the public with the opportunity to hear working contemporary artists speak 
about their ideas and approaches. HMSG will also offer "After Hours" programs 
that will make the Museum's exhibitions and related educational programs 
available to a broader audience through extended evening hours. In addition, the 
public's viewing of exhibitions will be augmented by gallery talks and tours, and 
by films that examine exhibition themes or contemporary art issues. 

HMSG will continue to present exhibitions introducing new artists and 
insightful considerations of major figures in modern and contemporary art. In 
FY 2009, the Museum will present an exhibition of landmark art works acquired 
from the renowned Panza Collection. The exhibition schedule will also feature 
the first retrospective of American artist Anne Truitt since her death in 2004, 
and the wide-ranging works of major avant-garde artist Louise Bourgeois. HMSG 
will continue its Directions exhibition series that showcases emerging artists 
creating original works for display at the Museum. The series will feature 
Jennifer Allora and Guillermo Calzadilla. The curatorial staff will also rotate 
displays of the expanding permanent collection, and all exhibitions will be 
complemented by numerous public tours led by docents, curators, and artists. 

In FY 2009, HMSG will focus on upgrading storage conditions and 
enhancing its restoration efforts to advance the goal of improving stewardship 
of the national collections. In late FY 2009, the Museum will begin moving 60 
percent of its collection to a secure storage location at the Museum Support 
Center in Suitland, Maryland, a huge undertaking that HMSG will plan and 
initiate with central Smithsonian resources. For the 40 percent of the collection 
that will remain on site, HMSG will start a space redesign that will feature an 
upgraded storage area and conservation studio. In addition, the Museum will 



91 



begin the physical rearrangement of the sculpture garden while gradually 
completing a thorough restoration of one or more of the outside sculptures. The 
Museum will increase public access to its permanent collections by adding new 
images and expanded records to the collections database and making such 
information searchable and viewable on its public website. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, HMSG will publish a 
signature work for scholars, curators, and conservators on the materials and 
methods of artist Willem de Kooning. The Museum will further increase its 
scope as a national center for works in new media by developing a core 
competency in the conservation of these works, and by sharing this knowledge 
through papers or presentations in national and international forums. 

To meet the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, HMSG will 
further improve the individual's personal experience at the Museum by 
redesigning visitor amenities on the lower level, making visitor flow around the 
Museum more direct, and re-orienting the main visitor entrance to the Mall side 
of the Museum. A cross-functional effort to improve gallery interpretation will 
yield better interpretive aids and gallery labels. Ongoing staff development will 
continue to reinforce an outcomes-based culture that always puts the visitor 
first. 

HMSG will also continue to streamline financial management and 
procurement, thereby enabling HMSG to concentrate on presenting world-class 
exhibitions and programs while increasing administrative oversight. Modernizing 
managerial budget reports will enable the Museum's leaders to allocate funds 
and resources with greater precision and efficiency. 

The Museum will build greater awareness of its role as a nexus of modern 
and contemporary art and culture by establishing a regular slate of press events 
to provide information on upcoming exhibitions and programs. Moreover, HMSG 
will develop a plan to extend its media network into the international travel 
media, which will raise the awareness of the Museum's contemporary art 
program in the nation's capital. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (6 FTEs and $595, 000) 

• Offer 30 family and teacher workshops throughout the year, 
related to a current exhibition or the permanent collection 

• Expand the teachers' open-house event by supplementing the on- 
site event and staff interpretative tours with educational materials 
made available on HMSG's website 



92 



• Conduct ongoing visitor surveys, through the Web as well as on 
site, to incorporate public responses into the planning of exhibitions 
and programming 

• Complete the redesign and re-launch distribution of HMSG's 
quarterly magazine 

• Continue timely upgrades to HMSG's website, taking advantage of 
the latest distribution technologies and visitor feedback 

Provide reference services and information to the public (4 FTEs and 
$335,000) 

• Offer 12 programs, including the annual James Demetrion Lecture 
and the "Meet the Artist" series, which focus on working 
contemporary artists 

• Offer four After Hours programs 

• Schedule 1 5 films annually that are directly related to an exhibition 
theme or address current conversations in contemporary art 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at the Smithsonian and across 
the nation (17 FTEs and $1,391,000) 

• Develop and mount five exhibitions, including major retrospectives, 
thematic shows, and small focused exhibitions 

• Develop one exhibition in collaboration with another art museum 

• Offer two Ways of Seeing installations that present selections from 
the permanent collection in new contexts 

• Conceptualize and install an exhibition of the permanent collection 
and complement it with regularly scheduled public tours 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (7 FTEs and $776,000) 

• Begin reconfiguring the entire sculpture garden according to the 
approved plan 

• Continue annual progress of restoring at least one major outdoor 
sculpture 

• Add 700 new images to HMSG's collections database 

• Develop a plan to transport 60 percent of the collection to the 
newly constructed collections storage facility off site 

• Begin efforts to redesign on-site spaces for the approximately 40 
percent of the permanent collection remaining at HMSG 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through 
original research (2 FTEs and $294,000) 

• Deliver at least six original research presentations or reports on 
emerging conservation techniques at national and international 
professional meetings or in publications 

• Publish a book for scholars, curators, and conservators on the 
materials and methods of artist Willem de Kooning 



93 



Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (5 FTEs and $405,000) 

• Continue redesign and improvements to visitor amenities on lower 
level 

• Improve visitor flow into HMSG and around the first floor 

• Pursue the re-orientation of the main visitor entrance to the Mall 
side of the building 

• Improve gallery interpretation by rewriting and redesigning gallery 
labels and developing other interpretative aids for installations in 
the lower level and lobby 

• Continue ongoing leadership development by training the remaining 
50 percent of staff and conduct at least one Museum-wide 
workshop per year 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
processes (1 FTE and $87,000) 

• Integrate funds control tools with monthly budget reporting and 
review process 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (4 FTEs and $324,000) 

• Host three annual press events to share information on upcoming 
exhibitions and programs with members of the news media 

• Promote HMSG as a leading voice for contemporary arts and 
culture by developing a long-term program to inform and attract the 
international travel media 

Modernize and streamline the Institution's acquisitions management 
operations (1 FTE and $87,000) 

• Centralize most procurement tasks under a single staff position 

• Implement a procurement in-briefing with handbook for all new 
hires, and deliver semi-annual refresher classes tailored to each 
department's procurement activities 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits of administrative and development personnel, as well as some 
programs and public relations staff, development activities, and exhibition 
and program-related costs. Donor/sponsor-designated funds support 
development, exhibitions, public programs, communications, and marketing. 



94 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN ART 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


29 


4,086 


1 


505 


2 


338 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


37 


4,333 


2 


457 


1 


726 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


37 


4,415 


2 


457 


1 


436 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


7 


878 


5 


659 


-2 


-219 


Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


2 


226 


5 


443 


3 


217 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


17 


1,824 


12 


1,691 


-5 


-133 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


4 


473 


5 


578 


1 


105 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


1 


128 


1 


125 





-3 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


3 


458 


6 


637 


3 


179 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


2 


243 


2 


183 





-60 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media 
and with federal, state, and local governments 


1 


103 


1 


99 





-4 


Total 


37 


4,333 


37 


4,415 





82 



95 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Museum of African Art (NMAfA) collects and exhibits 
ancient to contemporary art from the continent of Africa. NMAfA fulfills its 
mission by fostering the discovery and appreciation of the visual art of 
Africa. The Museum develops and schedules exhibitions, publications, and 
public educational programs, as well as providing stewardship of the art 
collection and photography archives. Through the visual arts, the Museum 
seeks to stimulate an interest in the history of Africa and an understanding 
of its diverse cultures. 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, NMAfA engages 
and inspires diverse audiences by developing educational resources geared to 
educators and children, as well as by providing lectures and gallery tours on 
the collections and specific exhibitions to audiences of different ages and 
learning levels. NMAfA facilitates research about African art by scholars, and 
provides reference services to academics and the public through exhibition 
texts and digital access to its collections on the World Wide Web. NMAfA 
also focuses resources on the presentation of exhibitions of ancient, 
traditional, modern, and contemporary art, using its permanent collections 
and borrowed works from other public and private collections. The Museum 
also schedules exhibitions organized by other museums and art galleries. 

NMAfA will achieve its goal of Enhanced Management Excellence by 
focusing on improving information technology (IT) operations, and by 
emphasizing professional and quality engagement with the public. Staff 
performance and programs will be measured through a variety of 
performance-based measurement tools such as visitor surveys. In addition, 
the Museum will continue to improve media relations, and develop effective 
financial reports that facilitate management by Museum senior staff and the 
director. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $82,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, NMAfA is 
directing resources to activities that will result in consistently high-quality 
programs and an increase in visitors and audiences. NMAfA will deploy a 
variety of strategies, including printed school-based curriculum resources for 
area school teachers; training for Museum docents; educational websites; 
educational community outreach programs for children and adults in the 



96 



metropolitan Washington, DC area; various types of free publications; and 
exhibitions geared to collectors, scholars, educators, youth, and families. 

Free brochures and pamphlets, such as family guides for exhibitions 
and educational posters that summarize key exhibition themes, provide 
general orientation for visitors about African art and intellectual activities 
that visitors may complete at the Museum or at home. The Museum plans to 
publish an exhibition catalogue for Thinking with Animals as a learning and 
teaching tool for children. NMAfA will also complete a catalogue that 
includes essays from scholars and artists for Cosmos, a major exhibition 
scheduled to open in 2010. 

NMAfA will enhance the Museum's website through navigation 
features and multi-media applications for educational activities and learning 
modules for students and teachers. An emphasis will be placed on the Walt 
Disney-Tishman African Art collection, a major collection of traditional 
African art that has functioned as the foundation for the study of African art. 
Another educational component will be a new docents corps that Museum 
staff and visiting scholars will train to give public tours. The docents are 
essential for reaching audiences of different economic backgrounds, ages, 
and diverse cultures. 

NMAfA will continue to develop and expand exhibition-related 
teacher/student workshops, as well as community outreach activities in the 
performing arts such as dance, music, and storytelling. NMAfA will expand 
its collaboration with the Smithsonian Discovery Theater in the "Meet the 
Museum" program, where children are introduced to art in the galleries that 
is tied in with theater subjects. Ongoing educational programs will include 
"Sounds of Africa" musical performances, dance performances, "Let's Read 
about Africa," storytelling, "Family Day," and community outreach and 
school outreach programs and activities. Some of these programs are 
collaborations with community organizations such as Studio Africa, which 
will begin in 2008. 

Based on the Museum's current exhibitions, NMAfA will increase the 
number of scheduled public lectures and gallery tours by staff, docents, and 
invited scholars to target mixed-generation audiences. For adult audiences, the 
Museum will revive its highly successful film series and plan a major scholarly 
conference associated with the Cosmos exhibition. NMAfA also will continue 
its curatorial and conservation clinics that provide staff expertise to the 
general public. 

In addition, the Museum provides a reference service for African culture, 
history, society, and art through online educational resources and with age- 



97 



appropriate texts within exhibits. To increase public access to NMAfA's 
collections, the Museum will continue online cataloguing of its art and 
photographic collections, with priorities being the Walt Disney-Tishman African 
Art Collection and the Eliot Elisofon Photography Archives. The Museum will 
also continue providing podcasts of artists' interviews and music. 

In FY 2009, three new exhibitions are expected to attract general 
audiences, collectors, scholars, and educators by presenting collections that 
reflect the diverse cultures of Africa and their artistic expression, the art 
history of Africa, and the importance of art within African cultures. Each 
exhibition will have an exhibition brochure and family guide. Mami Wata, 
Arts for Water Spirits in Africa and the African Atlantic World, an exhibition 
of 1 50 objects organized by the Fowler Museum of Cultural History at UCLA, 
will present art depicting the mermaid images associated with Africa and the 
African diaspora in the Caribbean, Brazil, and the United States. Thinking 
with Animals is a child-oriented exhibition that will illustrate how animal 
attributes are used to describe personalities, appropriate and inappropriate 
behavior, and social status and prestige. New Voices in Contemporary Art 
will present new contemporary art drawn from the Museum's collection. 
Educational components such as interactive stations will be installed in the 
exhibition galleries to provide contexts for understanding African art. In 
addition to these temporary exhibitions, the Walt Disney-Tishman African Art 
Collection will be on continual view. The Museum will also prepare for the 
2010 opening of the Cosmos exhibition. 

As part of collections stewardship, NMAfA will continue to deaccession 
approximately 50 works from the art collection. The Museum also will develop 
and implement a collection policy and plan for the Eliot Elisofon Photographic 
Archives, as well as for the modern and contemporary African art collection. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, NMAfA will 
focus resources on information technology (IT) operations, staff performance 
and accountability, and relations with the news media. The Museum's IT 
plan has integrated information technology functions for administration, 
collections management, exhibitions, and public access. NMAfA will perform 
the third annual review of its IT plan in preparation for making software and 
hardware updates as needed. 

To strengthen customer service, NMAfA will ensure that annual staff 
performance plans incorporate the goals of the Institution's and NMAfA's 
strategic plans. Personnel and programmatic management responsibilities 
already have been incorporated into the performance plans of all department 
heads to ensure more effective operations and meet audience expectations. 
Accountability will be further achieved through feedback from expanded 



98 



visitor surveys, assessments of the effectiveness of staff interaction with the 
public, and periodic "town hall" meetings with representatives of the 
community that the Museum serves. 

To increase public visibility and enhance the Museum's reputation, 
NMAfA will continue to cultivate media representatives by expanding its 
number of contacts and strengthening its one-to-one relationships with 
representatives of the printed press, media websites, other museums, and 
cultural organizations. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (5 FTEs and $659,000) 

• Develop a revised school-based curriculum resource for area school 
teachers 

• Develop a new curriculum and training regimen for Museum 
docents that reflects diverse audience needs 

• Launch one new curriculum-based/educational website 

• Conceive and develop one new educational outreach program for 
children and adults 

• Develop a family guide for the Museum's collection 

Provide reference services and information to the public (5 FTEs and 
$443,000) 

• Make available online 80 percent of all printed educational 
resources, such as family guides and exhibit brochures, as well as 
podcasts of artist interviews to provide reference and information 
for students, teachers, and educators 

• Increase by 10 percent the digital image database for the Museum 
website and publications 

• Increase online cataloguing and digital images of the Eliot Elisofon 
Photographic Archives by 10 percent to provide greater public 
access to the collection 

• Increase the number of virtual visitors by 10 percent by enhancing 
the design and navigation of the Museum's website 

• Develop editorial templates for exhibition texts for young audiences 
Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (12 FTEs and $1,691,000) 

• Present two exhibitions with broad appeal to attract more diverse 
audiences, including children, adults, target schools, educators, 
and African art scholars and collectors 

• Present one exhibit that focuses on children and provides 
interactive components for children and adults 

• Develop one innovative exhibition design/installation to enhance 



99 



audience appeal and encourage learning opportunities for visitors 

• Develop design, interpretive content, and interactive educational 
components for a major exhibition to open at NMAfA in FY 2010 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (5 FTEs and $578,000) 

• Deaccession 50 objects from NMAfA collections 

• Perform conservation treatment on one percent of NMAfA 
collections 

• Develop policy and collection plans for modern and contemporary 
African art, as well as for the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (1 FTE and $125,000) 

• Perform the third annual review of the Museum's five-year IT plan 
and perform upgrades as required 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (6 FTEs and $637,000) 

• Ensure conformance of staff performance plans with goals and 
priorities of the Institution and the Museum's strategic plan 

• Achieve highly favorable responses in visitor surveys for all 
exhibitions presented in FY 2009 

• Implement participant surveys for all educational public programs 
held at NMAfA 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (2 FTEs and $183,000) 

• Complete development of reports that facilitate effective financial 
management by the director and Museum senior staff 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (1 FTE and $99,000) 

• Increase by five percent the number of personal contacts with 
media representatives to achieve ongoing positive media coverage 
of the Museum 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support staff 
salaries, benefits, and travel. Funds raised from individual and corporate 
donors will support NMAfA's major exhibition efforts in FY 2009, including 
exhibition-related publications, educational programming, and outreach. 
Corporate and foundation sponsorship provides support for the planning and 
implementation of exhibitions, including installation expenses and exhibition- 
related public programming, travel, and curatorial collaborations. 



100 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


51 


7,203 


3 


471 


6 


1,585 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


59 


5,523 


3 


653 


7 


4,001 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


59 


5,680 


4 


653 


7 


4,001 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


8 


700 


8 


750 





50 


Provide reference services and information 


5 


570 


5 


610 





40 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


11 


979 


1 1 


1,071 





92 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


18 


1,536 


18 


1,621 





85 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


4 


382 


4 


386 





4 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


1 


120 


1 


125 





5 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


9 


1,071 


9 


952 





-119 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


3 


165 


3 


165 








Total 


59 


5,523 


59 


5,680 





157 



101 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) functions as a free public museum 
for the exhibition and study of portraiture depicting women and men who 
have made significant contributions to the history, development, and culture 
of the people of the United States, and the artists who have created such 
portraiture. Congress established the NPG to be the pinnacle of national 
recognition, and the Gallery will continue to ensure that its collections honor 
the American people. 

The Gallery devotes a major portion of its resources to achieve its 
Increased Public Engagement goals. Compelling exhibitions, educational and 
public programs, publications, the management and growth of its collections 
and the use of innovative media in its galleries and website will attract new 
visitors and appeal to its diverse national and international audiences. 

Strengthened Research resources will be used to produce scholarly 
publications to accompany exhibitions on Marcel Duchamp and NPG's self- 
portraiture collection and the editing project of the Charles Willson Peale 
Family Papers. The Peale Papers' archive is a matchless source of 
information on the American family, social, and cultural history from the 
1730s to the 1880s. 

NPG will continue to manage its resources for Enhanced Management 
Excellence by expanding its public media campaign to increase promotion of 
its exhibitions, programs, and website at national and local levels. 
Technological platforms and electronic outreach initiatives will be updated 
and human resources and management objectives will be examined to 
improve systems communication and training. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $157,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

Two major exhibitions are planned for FY 2009. Reflections/ 
Refractions: Self-Portraiture in the Twentieth Century will include 75 works 
on paper and highlight the Bowman-Kahn Twentieth Century American Self- 
Portrait Collection acquired in 2002. The triennial Outwin Boochever Portrait 
Competition — a nationwide endeavor wherein known and unknown artists 
compete for a portrait commission and a cash award — will culminate in an 
exhibition of portraits by the 65 finalists. Four smaller exhibitions will be 
presented, as follows: Inventing Marcel Duchamp: The Dynamics of 
Portraiture; Presidents in Waiting, the story of the vice presidents who 



102 



ascended to the nation's highest office will open during the 2009 
Presidential inauguration; One Life: President James Monroe; and the third 
installation of the contemporary exhibition series of Portraiture Now will be 
presented. Scholarly publications for the Reflections/Refractions and 
Duchamp exhibitions and a book celebrating the finalists for the Outwin 
Boochever Portrait Competition will be produced. 

The Gallery's permanent collection galleries will undergo a significant 
change as 250 works on paper will be rotated off view for preservation, and 
new collection objects will be matted and framed and new labels will be 
researched, written, edited, and prepared for public display. Audio-visual 
elements installed in the permanent collection galleries will be refreshed as 
license agreements initiated for the 2006 NPG grand reopening of its public 
spaces expire. Research and planning for future exhibitions will proceed, 
particularly for a photographic exhibition on The Frontier Remade; Thomas 
Sully: the Theatre of His World; and Seeing Gertrude Stein. 

Outgoing national and international loans provide a significant 
opportunity for outreach. Loans will be made available for the major 
exhibition on Man Ray, African Art and the Modernist Lens originated by the 
Museum of Fine Arts of Santa Fe, New Mexico, which will travel to the San 
Diego Museum of Art, Newark Museum, the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, 
Georgia, and the De Young Museum of Art of San Francisco, California; and 
for the Cezanne and American Modernism exhibition originated by the 
Montclair Art Museum in New Jersey, which will travel to the Baltimore 
Museum of Art and a third venue. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (8 FTEs and $750,000) 

• Award a portrait commission and cash award to the winning artist for 
the second Outwin Boochever Portrait Competition in 2009 

• Present the Edgar P. Richardson symposium on American portraiture 
and biography 

• Publish three issues of Profile, the Gallery's publication, to increase 
national awareness of NPG programs and research 

• Publish three high-quality, illustrated books in support of current 
exhibitions 

• Recruit and train a corps of teenage ambassadors to serve as Museum 
mentors for fifth-grade students in the metropolitan Washington, DC 
area 



103 



• Design 25 educational programs and 150 presentations for school and 
community audiences 

• Design 12 public programs and 72 presentations for community 
audiences 

• Promote new — and build on existing — relationships with scholars, 
internal and external to the Smithsonian, to develop collaborative 
ventures for the future, including public programs, exhibitions, and 
publications 

• Present a series of gallery talks and focus tours, highlighting objects 
on view in the permanent collection, special exhibitions galleries, and 
NPG collections storage sites 

• Provide the public with insights into collection preservation at the 
Visible Conservation Lab by allowing visitors to observe conservation 
treatments in progress 

Provide reference services and information to the public (5 FTEs and 
$610,000) 

• Update the NPG website to include virtual tours of current exhibitions, 
an enhanced collections database, program information, and public 
programs, and pursue opportunities for electronic dissemination 
through other media 

• Write, edit, and produce several hundred labels for rotating permanent 
collection exhibitions 

• Provide individual responses to public inquiries about individual 
portraits and biographies 

• Continue adding records of historically significant portraits of notable 
American subjects or by notable American artists from various public 
and private collections to NPG's Catalog of American Portraits (CAP) 

• Provide backlisted NPG publications to scholars and the general public 
via the NPG website 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (11 FTEs and $1,071,000) 

• Install two major exhibitions: Reflections/Refractions: Self-Portraiture 
in the Twentieth Century and the 2009 Outwin Boochever Portrait 
Competition 

• Install four smaller exhibitions that will reflect the Gallery's mission to 
exhibit portraits of individuals who have made significant contributions 
to American history and culture or who have expanded knowledge of 
American portraiture 

• Rotate 250 permanent collection works on paper in the public galleries 
and use preservation techniques to store the works going off-view 

• Travel one major exhibition: Reflections/Refractions: Self-Portraiture in 
the Twentieth Century 

• Make collection objects available as outgoing loans to significant non- 
NPG exhibitions 



104 



Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (18 FTEs and $1,621,000) 

• Ensure adherence to current museum best practices for proper storage 
and exhibition of collection objects 

• Complete accession records on all objects acquired during the year 
(accessions average 190 per year) 

• Prepare condition reports on all objects received from or going out on 
loan to other institutions 

• Inventory the painting and sculpture collection 

• Provide conservation treatments for collection objects as required 

• Mat and frame 250 paper objects 

• Acquire portraits of significant Americans when available, particularly 
from under-represented populations 

• Ensure completion of digital coverage for 350 objects 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the arts and humanities through 
original research, including research on collections, which is reflected in 
publications, exhibitions/displays, and public programs (4 FTEs and 
$386,000) 

• Publish scholarly books on Marcel Duchamp and on NPG's self- 
portraiture collection 

• Continue research and writing for Volumes 6 and 7 of the Selected 
Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Children 

• Research images and biographies of significant Americans who should 
be added to the collection and included in exhibitions and publications 

• Continue staff participation on Smithsonian initiatives such as the 
Congress of Scholars, the Smithsonian Photography Initiative 
Committee, the selection of Smithsonian residential Fellows (pre- and 
postdoctoral Fellows), the review of nominations for the Secretary's 
distinguished research lecturer, and service on the editorial board of 
the Smithsonian American Art Museum's periodical, American Art 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (1 FTE and $125,000) 

• Manage and refine IT capabilities that will enhance the visitor 
experience and increase visitation 

• Train and cross-train staff on various Smithsonian software programs 
and systems 

• Manage services to ensure that reliable and efficient technological 
systems meet federal standards, with less than one percent downtime 



105 



Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (9 FTEs and $952,000) 

• Collect and report on audience/customer data for NPG programs and 
products, and introduce marketing planning, implementation, and 
controls for use in planning future programs 

• Improve management of the NPG through increased staff 
communications, training, and reorganizations, as appropriate 

• Coordinate efforts with other Smithsonian units to improve systems 
and procedures 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments 
(3 FTEs and $165,000) 

• Increase national and local visibility through robust publicity and media 
campaigns to announce NPG exhibitions, programs, educational 
initiatives, and special events 

• Conduct print and radio advertising campaigns in local outlets for two 
major exhibitions opening in FY 2009 

• Promote NPG through public service announcements 

• Coordinate publicity efforts with other Smithsonian units to leverage 
the distinct role of the Gallery 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support critical 
positions and help defray costs of publications, public lectures, symposia, 
special events for exhibition openings, loan exhibition development, fund 
raising, management, and research. Donor/sponsor-designated funds provide 
support for costs related to specific programs and projects for exhibitions, 
collection acquisitions, educational programming, outreach, and support of 
the NPG Director's Circle. 



106 



SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


90 


11,596 


7 


576 


16 


5,619 


2 


183 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


98 


8,577 


7 


1,058 


13 


5,701 


3 


184 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


98 


8,835 


7 


955 


13 


6,919 


3 


195 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; SECURITY AND SAFETY; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT 

EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


16 


1,468 


16 


1,525 





57 


Provide reference services and information 


4 


326 


4 


327 





1 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


20 


1,710 


20 


1,766 





56 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


29 


2,390 


29 


2,496 





106 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure advancement of knowledge in humanities 


5 


532 


5 


539 





7 


Security and Safety 














Provide a safe and healthy environment 


1 


102 


1 


102 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's IT systems/infrastructure 


7 


656 


7 


679 





23 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


6 


558 


6 


559 





1 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 


1 


92 


1 


92 








Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


3 


208 


3 


214 





6 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


5 


488 


5 


489 





1 


Modernize and streamline the Institution's 
acquisitions management operations 


1 


47 


1 


47 








Total 


98 


8,577 


98 


8,835 





258 



107 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) is the nation's Museum 
dedicated to the arts and artists of the United States from colonial times to the 
present. It is the home of the largest and most inclusive collection of American 
art in the world, and its holdings of more than 40,000 works spanning three 
centuries and paralleling the nation's cultural development tell the story of 
America through the visual arts. The Museum's programs make the collection 
available to national audiences and beyond, as well as to those who visit its two 
historic landmark buildings in Washington, DC: the Donald W. Reynolds Center 
(DWRC) for American Art and Portraiture (shared by SAAM and the National 
Portrait Gallery [NPG]) and the Renwick Gallery, dedicated to American crafts 
and decorative arts. 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, SAAM devotes 
most of its federal resources to exhibitions, education, collections care and 
enhancement, Web and research resources, publications, and information for 
the public. An ambitious schedule of exhibitions developed in-house, and 
complemented by shows obtained from other organizations, is expected to 
attract old friends and new. Larger exhibition spaces, restaurants, and shops 
provide visitors with a broad menu of activities, encouraging more frequent 
return visits to the Museum. The Lunder Conservation Center opens the window 
on collections care, and the Luce Foundation Center for American Art displays 
an additional 3,500 collection objects in densely installed glass cases. The 
Museum is investigating using cell phone tours and mobile audio and multi- 
media guides, streaming the rich content of SAAM's collections and American 
culture in general. A 350-seat auditorium makes possible a vastly expanded 
range of public programming that includes lectures and films as well as music, 
theater, and dance performances. A glass atrium over the courtyard creates a 
grand, year-round gathering space for premier events. SAAM's branch museum, 
the Renwick Gallery, continues to present public programs, exhibitions, and 
rotations of its permanent collection of American crafts, including an extremely 
popular biennial exhibition, the Renwick Craft Invitational. Multiple traveling 
exhibitions simultaneously crisscross the country, providing the public with 
broad, direct access to the nation's artistic and cultural heritage. 

The balance of SAAM's allocation is dedicated to achieving the goals of 
Strengthened Research, Security and Safety, and Enhanced Management 
Excellence. Curators and other staff will research collection objects and related 
topics, and disseminate their results through publications, symposia, and 
lectures. Managers will carefully plan, promote, protect and conserve the 
Museum's resources in the pursuit of Enhanced Management Excellence. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $258,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff. 



108 



MEANS AND STRATEGY 

Educational and public program offerings will continue to evolve in 2009 
as the Museum implements new ways to use facilities such as the auditorium 
and courtyard, and builds on successful programming at the Renwick Gallery. 
Audiences throughout the country will benefit from distance-learning and 
national education programs, and more of the Museum's data and images will 
be made available on the Web. Innovative technologies, such as blogs and 
podcasts, will be used to promote the Museum as a destination as well as to 
provide content remotely, and SAAM will continue its highly successful online 
reference service, "Ask Joan of Art." 

Exhibition schedules will include 8-10 shows per year in the six 
exhibition galleries at the DWRC and the Renwick Gallery. Works in the 
permanent collection galleries will be rotated to show the many facets of 
American art and culture, as well as to encourage return visits. Interactive 
exhibition components will be developed to keep pace with technology-savvy 
audiences. National outreach will include six exhibitions which will tour to 
venues throughout the country. 

The safe storage and display of collection objects continue to be a 
priority. SAAM will develop public interest and awareness of conservation 
issues through the Lunder Visible Conservation Laboratory and related public 
programs. Digital information and images will be expanded and made available 
on the Web, and new artworks will be acquired to fill gaps in the collection. 

Research on the collections and related topics will be performed in 
support of exhibitions and the permanent collection, and results will be shared 
with the public in various ways. 

Information technology and administrative processes will be strengthened 
through close monitoring of resources and processes, and strong partnerships 
with central offices will enable SAAM to provide an end-user perspective on 
policy changes. Use of SAAM's searchable, Web-based WIKI format will keep 
staff current on the dynamic procedural and regulatory environment at the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Expanded marketing and media campaigns will promote the Museum's 
collections and programs to a growing public audience. Emphasizing a shared 
"brand" for SAAM and NPG will increase the impact and effectiveness of ad 
campaigns. 



109 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (16 FTEs and 
$1,525,000) 

• Plan, prepare, and produce at least 250 successful public program and 
lecture events for Museum audiences, in person and remotely 

• Maintain and improve SAAM's National Education Program, partnering 
with organizations nationwide to fulfill the need for quality curriculum 
and educational resources using visual arts in core disciplines 

• Make effective use of SAAM collections and scholarship in educational 
programs 

• Make effective use of evolving information technology in educational 
programs. Include Web presence in the Museum's National Education 
Program and other distance-learning programs 

• Publish at least two catalogues and other high-quality publications 
related to SAAM's mission, collections, and/or exhibitions to further 
academic criticism, as well as educate the general public on the 
continual and direct involvement of art in the American experience 

• Continue curatorial and other staff participation in national 
conferences, symposia, and programs in order to share SAAM's 
knowledge, collections, and expertise 

• Provide a robust internship program to advance museum career 
development for college and graduate students 

• Enhance the visitor experience and enjoyment of the Museum through 
a visitor services program 

Provide reference services and information to the public (4 FTEs and 
$327,000} 

• Continue to develop visitor services for the Museum-goers in the 
Reynolds Center 

• Continue SAAM's online reference service, "Ask Joan of Art", 
responding to at least 5,000 information requests nation- and 
worldwide a year 

• Provide public access to specialized art research databases, including 
the Inventory of American Painting, Inventory of American Sculpture, 
and SAAM's Photo Study Collections 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (20 FTEs and $ 1, 766,000) 

• Plan, prepare and produce 8-10 successful exhibitions for the DWRC 
and Renwick Gallery 

• Mount and support six traveling exhibitions as well as loans from 
SAAM collections 

• Increase curatorial support 



110 



Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (29 FTEs and $2,496,000) 

• Ensure the physical safety of the collection to guarantee their 
longevity and preserve America's cultural heritage 

• Provide secure and environmentally sound storage and display of 
collections, following established collection management policies 

• Conserve and maintain objects according to professional ethics and 
standards of the American Institute for Conservation of Artistic and 
Historic Works 

• Secure major artworks, revising the acquisitions priority list to address 
collection gaps, goals, and opportunities 

• Maintain accurate, accessible, and useful information on collection 
objects, including cataloguing, images, and location tracking 

• Enhance collections accessibility with digital photography and 
information for online retrieval, creating digital records for all new 
acquisitions, expanding biographical information, and maintaining 
access to database from multiple SAAM locations and applications 

• Maintain and improve website infrastructure and content to share 
exhibitions, collections information, and images with a larger audience 
than can enjoy the collection in person 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through original 
research (5 FTEs and $539,000) 

• Continue curatorial research on collections and the broader field of 
American art 

• Support research and intellectual discourse in the fields of art history 
and cultural studies through a robust residential fellowship program 

• Publish three issues of the American Art journal to further scholarly 
research in the field of American Art 

Security and Safety 

Provide a safe and healthy environment (1 FTE and $ 102,000) 

• Perform regular inspections and provide advice on safety, occupational 
health, environmental, and fire-prevention issues to SAAM and NPG 
staff 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (7 FTEs and $679,000) 

• Provide SAAM staff with the IT tools and support necessary to meet 
program goals 

• Work collaboratively throughout the Smithsonian Institution to improve 
automated management systems 

• Create and maintain the Web platform necessary for electronic 
outreach (i.e., for exhibitions, education, general museum, and 

m 



collections information) 

• Provide infrastructure to support the use of technology for innovative 
presentations in the Museum 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (6 FTEs and $559,000) 

• Manage resources efficiently and responsibly, whether fiscal, human, 
or cultural, to ensure that core functions of SAAM work 

• Provide guidance, leadership, direction, and oversight to staff and unit 
activities to ensure strategic goals and program objectives are met 

• Provide SAAM staff with the administrative tools and support 
necessary to do their jobs 

• Work closely with central Smithsonian Institution offices on 
implementation of new management systems and processes 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (1 FT E and $92,000) 

• Monitor Museum staffing and organization to ensure efficient 
allocation of limited personnel resources 

• Train and cross-train staff for flexibility in responding to changes in 
funding, technologies, and processes 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (3 FTEs and $214,000) 

• Monitor financial transactions closely through monthly review, 
reconciliation, and reports to management, thereby ensuring 
allowability and allocability of expenses 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments 
(5 FTEs and $489,000) 

• Publicize SAAM and Renwick Gallery exhibitions, events, and 
programs to local and national media to ensure the widest possible 
awareness of collections and resources 

• Ensure successful placement of publicity with general media for 
Renwick Gallery activities, as well as in craft publications 

• Collaborate with NPG on the promotion of shared programs and 
activities in the DWRC 

Modernize and streamline the Institution's acquisitions management 
operations (1 FTE and $47,000) 

• Ensure efficient processing and monitoring of procurement activity at 
SAAM 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES -- General trust funds support salaries and 
benefits of personnel, fund raising, and other related costs. Donor/sponsor- 
designated funds support specific programs and projects. All of SAAM's 
programs, including exhibitions, educational, public programs, and additions to 
the national collection, depend on support from individuals, foundations, and 
corporations. 



112 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


168 


17,057 


34 


4,365 


19 


3,049 


6 


1,454 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


174 


17,095 


34 


5,003 


23 


4,213 


6 


2,052 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


174 


17,565 


34 


5,003 


23 


4,203 


6 


2,052 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


12 


1,024 


12 


1,052 





28 


Provide reference services and 
information to the public 


7 


648 


7 


665 





17 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


45 


4,980 


45 


5,116 





136 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


53 


3,883 


53 


3,990 





107 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


4 


984 


4 


1,011 





27 


Ensure the advancement of knowledge in 
the humanities 


25 


2,675 


25 


2,750 





75 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information 
technology systems and infrastructure 


9 


850 


9 


873 





23 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is 
customer centered and results oriented 


19 


2,051 


19 


2,108 





57 


Total 


174 


17,095 


174 


17,565 





470 



113 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The mission of the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) is to 
commemorate the national development of aviation and space flight, and 
educate and inspire the nation by: 

■ preserving and displaying aeronautical and space-flight equipment and 
data of historical interest and significance to the progress of aviation and 
space flight; 

■ developing educational materials and conducting programs to increase the 
public's understanding of, and involvement in, the development of 
aviation and space flight; and 

■ conducting and disseminating new research in the study of aviation and 
space flight and their related technologies. 

NASM is administered as one Museum with multiple locations: the 
National Mall building; the Udvar-Hazy Center; and the Garber Facility. NASM 
provides access to the nation's aviation and space-flight history to an 
average of 6-8 million on-site visitors from around the world per year, 
making it one of the most visited museums in the world. In addition, NASM 
draws tens of millions of virtual visitors to its website and broadcast and 
webcast educational programming. 

In FY 2009, NASM will collect and preserve the nation's aviation and 
space heritage, perform the necessary research for exhibits and the increase 
of knowledge of the solar system, and enhance educational programs, using 
a mixture of in-house and volunteer resources to convey excitement and 
information to a diverse audience. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $470,000 
for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

Public Engagement — NASM reaches a diverse audience through static and 
dynamic exhibits on site, through outreach efforts at local and national 
schools and organizations, and through professional activities concerning the 
history of aviation and space flight and the planetary sciences. To perform 
these activities, NASM relies on staff as well as more than 600 volunteers. 
In the National Mall building and Udvar-Hazy Center, docents offer thousands 
of tours annually, and education volunteers provide on-the-floor educational 
demonstrations. In FY 2006, NASM's Docent Corps was awarded the 
Frank G. Brewer Trophy, the National Aeronautics Association's highest 



114 



honor, for significant contributions of enduring value during the last 30 years 
to aerospace education in the United States. 

The National Mall building's highly interactive and popular How Things 
Fly Gallery and Explainers Program served almost 100,000 visitors last year, 
with regularly scheduled theater demonstrations of the principles of flight. 
NASM also hosts several "Family Day" events and related programs during 
the year, which are tied to specific themes. Recent Family Days included the 
Heritage Series celebrating America's diverse cultural heritage, "Air and 
Scare" for Halloween, Kite Day in March, and a Fly-in during June. In May, 
the Museum conducts the national "Space Day" commemoration in 
collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA) and Lockheed Martin Corporation. On this day, students and 
teachers around the country are able to connect to a live broadcast made 
available to more than 38,000 schools and more than 8.5 million students 
and educators throughout the nation. 

In FY 2009, NASM will continue to inspire and educate audiences 
through renewed exhibits at the National Mall building and the Udvar-Hazy 
Center. According to audience assessments, the element that audiences 
would most like to see is interactive exhibits based on NASM's collections. 
This mode of audience engagement is well represented in the National Mall 
building's How Things Fly Gallery and on-the-floor Discovery Stations. During 
FY 2008, NASM will install air- and spacecraft in the Udvar-Hazy Center, 
rotate objects on exhibit, and upgrade galleries to reflect current trends in 
aviation and space flight. In FY 2008, NASM will continue to expand its 
integrated website and on-site visitor information. This feature will enable 
visitors to plan their visit on the Web, and to customize their Museum 
experience — from pre-visit planning, to on-site Museum tours, to post-visit 
learning. 

In FY 2008, NASM opened America by Air, the first renovation to the 
National Mall building's Hall of Air Transportation since NASM's opening in 
1976. Of special interest are a Boeing 747 cockpit that is open to visitors 
and a model of an Airbus 320 cockpit demonstrating Fly-by-Wire technology. 
NASA will support the gallery by providing regular updates on the latest 
advances in aviation. In 2007-2008, NASM installed art exhibits, including 
Earth from Space, displaying satellite photographs of Earth from space; Fly 
Now!, showcasing aviation travel posters of the 1920s to 1950s; and In 
Plane View, an artistic rendering of aircraft. Other galleries will be evaluated 
for upgrades. 

Collections — To improve the stewardship of the national collections, NASM 
will continue to raise funds for phase two of the Udvar-Hazy Center, the 



115 



restoration and collections storage buildings. When complete, the high level 
of craftsmanship shown in the NASM restoration program will be matched 
by world-class facilities that can handle the various types of objects and 
materials that the Museum manages. NASM will continue its loan program of 
more than 600 aviation and space artifacts, including some of the most 
sought-after artifacts of the last century: space suits and lunar spacecraft. In 
order to make information on the collection available to the public, NASM 
will continue to migrate collections information to a publicly accessible 
website. The curatorial databases contain extensive information on the 
history and provenance of each artifact, and the best way to offer more of 
this in-depth information to the public is through electronic means. NASM's 
electronic resources allow more people access to the Museum's archival 
collections, with a resulting increase in archival information requests by the 
public. 

Scientific Research — To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, 
NASM's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies conducts basic research 
related to planetary exploration with an emphasis on Mars, and curates 
galleries and public offerings in the space sciences. NASM continues to work 
with the excellent data provided by the Mars Exploration Rover, Mars 
Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions, and to convey this 
excitement to the public. NASM scientists are team members on the High 
Resolution Camera and two radar instruments now in orbit. If successful 
with the NASA grant process, NASM will lead a $350 million Mars Radar 
Mission. In FY 2008, basic research will concentrate on National Research 
Council and NASA priorities of determining the past climate of Mars, with 
results published in the scientific literature. 

NASM will continue to lead in the fields of aviation and space history 
by publishing papers and books in the fields of the history of space 
technology, aviation and aerodynamics history, and the early history of 
aviation. Based on their research and expertise, the curatorial staff will 
continue to evaluate potential acquisitions for the national collection and 
respond to numerous public inquiries. NASM will also continue to upgrade 
exhibits dealing with aviation and space, thereby ensuring that current 
material is available to the public. 

Management — To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, 
NASM has developed a single infrastructure to support the National Mall 
building and the Udvar-Hazy Center. NASM relies on contracted facilities 
management, information technology, security, and parking for the Udvar- 
Hazy Center. NASM has found its contractor solution to be a workable 
alternative for operating a remote site where central Smithsonian support 
services are unavailable. 



116 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (12 FTEs and 
$1,052,000) 

• Implement three educational programs and scholarly events relating 
to aviation, space-flight history, and planetary science through 
involvement with school systems and in partnerships with outside 
organizations 

• Develop an expanded family and underserved audience educational 
program, including Family Days, and a special summer program 
with a focus on NASM's new America by Air exhibition 

• Expand the "Aerospace Educator-in-Residence" program reach to 
attract more students to the Udvar-Hazy Center 

• Continue developing a strong electronic outreach program through 
broadcasting special events over the Internet in partnership with 
Fairfax Network 

Provide reference services and information to the public (7 FTEs and 
$665,000) 

• Expand Visitor Services programs by offering new self-guided tours 
at the National Mall building 

• Support other Smithsonian Institution museums and other federal 
agencies in implementing successful Visitor Services programs 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions and other public programs 
(45 FTEs and $5, 1 16,000) 

• Support the National Museum of American History's Treasures of 
American History exhibition 

• Provide curatorial input to upgrades of Udvar-Hazy Center exhibits, 
including at least two small object cases and two exhibit stations 

• Complete art exhibitions planned for the National Mall building 

• Plan the upgrades to Exploring the Planets and the gallery, 
including concept evaluations and designs 

• Increase the exhibits maintenance budget to address wear and tear 
on flooring, casework, and interactive exhibits 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (53 FTEs and $3,990,000) 



Improve and maintain the appearance of exhibits in the Museum 

Continue collections management by focusing resources on artifact 

restoration in addition to artifact installation at the Udvar-Hazy Center 

Prepare to accept the Space Shuttle fleet and related artifacts from 

NASA 

Add more documentation to 30 artifacts and upgrade the 

Collections Information System 



117 



Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery (4 FTEs and $1,01 1,000) 

• Increase emphasis on Mars research by gaining at least two new 
competitive research grants 

• Support three to five researchers, using competitively reviewed 
proposals and grants 

• Provide outreach for Mars missions that will be shown to the public 
through video displays, both on monitors in the Museum and on 
NASM's website 

• Publish at least four peer-reviewed professional papers 
documenting the role of Mars' tectonic and climate history 

• Use Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor data to understand 
the geologic history of Mars and study similar processes from 
Earth's geological history 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities (25 FTEs and 
$2,750,000) 

• Undertake the proper conservation, documentation, display, and 
interpretation of existing collections, and accept new artifacts as 
they are identified and funding is made available for their support 

• Provide leadership among aerospace museums by conducting the 
annual Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums Conference 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (9 FTEs and $873,000) 

• Provide support and leadership to the Institution's efforts to 
improve its technology infrastructure through Web server 
consolidation 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (19 FTEs and $2, 108,000) 

• Provide state-of-the-art facilities and security support, and manage 
facilities integration, including prime and subsidiary contractors and 
security outsourcing contracts for the Udvar-Hazy Center 

• Maintain an excellent working relationship with NASM 
stakeholders, including federal, state, local, and business 
constituencies, by providing briefings at least annually 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support research, 
education, exhibitions, and fund raising, including salaries and benefits. 
Donor/sponsor-designated funds support costs related to specific programs 
and projects. Fund raising is currently under way for Phase II of the Steven 
F. Udvar-Hazy Center, as well as future galleries. Government grants and 
contracts provide support for research and other scientific activities. 



118 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


376 


44,405 


1 1 


1,993 


32 


9,517 


17 


5,988 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


396 


45,221 


16 


2,948 


35 


19,174 


22 


11,522 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


396 


46,380 


16 


2,948 


35 


12,174 


22 


4,522 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


54 


5,372 


54 


5,510 





138 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


47 


5,179 


47 


5,311 





132 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 
for present and future generations 


140 


15,678 


140 


16,080 





402 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


128 


16,053 


128 


16,464 





411 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization 
program and limited construction of new facilities 


3 


311 


3 


319 





8 


Security and Safety 














Provide a safe and healthy environment 


2 


222 


2 


228 





6 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


12 


1,275 


12 


1,308 





33 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


10 


1,131 


10 


1,160 





29 


Total 


396 


45,221 


396 


46,380 





1,159 



119 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The mission of the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) is to 
inspire curiosity, discovery, and learning about nature and culture through 
outstanding research, collections, exhibitions, and education. Building upon its 
unique and vast collections and associated data, field research stations, 
specialized laboratories, and internationally recognized team of staff scientists, 
research associates, federal agency partners, and Fellows, the Museum provides 
fundamental research information to a wide array of constituencies ranging from 
federal agencies to the public. The Museum's particular strengths are in the 
following three Smithsonian Science theme areas: formation and evolution of 
the Earth and similar planets; discovering and understanding life's diversity; and 
studying human diversity and cultural change. The Museum's research provides 
new understanding and relevance to broader national and international scientific 
agendas, looking at such important societal issues as global change, 
biodiversity, cultural conflict, and natural hazards. 

The Museum's stewardship of its collection of more than 126 million 
natural history specimens and human artifacts is at the core of its mission. This 
collection, the largest of its kind, is an unparalleled resource for collections- 
based research on the diversity of life on Earth, including plants, animals, 
fossils, minerals, and human activity. These anthropological, biological, and 
geological specimens and objects are the foundation for all of the Museum's 
scientific products. With their unparalleled spatial breadth and temporal depth, 
the collections promote analyses and interpretations that allow scientists to 
connect observations of contemporary phenomena with the past and around the 
world so that we can better understand our planet and the effect of human 
activities on it. The Museum's collections capture the imagination and stimulate 
the next generation of scientists, and are important for the intellectual 
infrastructure and the Administration's continuing goal of competitiveness in 
international science and application of scientific knowledge. NMNH collections 
and their attendant information are a dynamic resource used by researchers, 
educators, and policy makers worldwide. 

In addition, NMNH's collections serve as critical reference materials for 
U.S. Government agencies. These resources are actively and collaboratively 
used by staff members of the Departments of Defense, Commerce, Agriculture, 
and Interior, who are housed in NMNH facilities. For example, tens of thousands 
of insects urgently requiring identification are sent to NMNH from ports of entry 
each year. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture and NMNH consult 
the collections and rapidly provide identifications to border control agencies so 
that U.S. agricultural and economic interests are kept secure from damage by 
potential invasive species. The NMNH bird collections provide answers to the 
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the U.S. Department of Defense, 
revealing the species of birds that damage aircraft, and leading to improved 

120 



habitat control around airports and improved aircraft and engine design. The 
National Cancer Institute relies upon NMNH as a trusted repository for plant 
specimens which must be kept as vouchers for pharmacological research. 
Similarly, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Survey 
relies on the NMNH as a trusted repository for the invertebrate animals it 
collects in the course of its research. Meteorites collected from Antarctica are 
deposited at NMNH by the Johnson Space Center and the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration (NASA). The Federal Bureau of Investigation benefits 
from the identifications and analyses conducted by experts in the Department of 
Anthropology, who consult the human skeletal collections when providing 
answers about the remains of crime victims. Analyses of the collections have 
provided answers regarding the spread of H5N1, the Avian Flu virus, and the 
etiology of past influenza epidemics. 

NMNH's first-class research supports its exhibitions and educational 
outreach. As one of the most visited museums in the world, NMNH provides 
diverse public audiences with presentations on every aspect of life on Earth. 
Through affiliations and partnerships, the Museum takes its science and public 
programs beyond the National Mall to other museums and non-traditional 
exhibition venues, such as libraries, schools, and universities throughout the 
country. With a growing network of interactive websites, the Museum is 
transforming itself into a true electronic classroom, which is potentially 
accessible to everyone. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $1,159,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, funding will be used 
to replace outdated exhibits with integrated, multi-disciplinary, and interactive 
exhibitions on the Mall and in other venues through traveling exhibits and 
electronic outreach across the country. In FY 2009, NMNH will continue 
renovating its permanent exhibition halls and offer new temporary exhibitions. 
NMNH will open the Ocean Hall exhibit in September 2008, a significant 
accomplishment because of the size (23,000 square feet of exhibition space), 
complexity, and dynamic nature of this new exhibit hall. This is the largest 
renovation of public space at the Museum in 40 years and is specifically designed 
so that the content can be updated and changed to incorporate new scientific 
discoveries. Design will be completed and fabrication well under way for another 
exciting and important permanent exhibit on Human Origins, which is planned to 
open in November 2009. The temporary exhibitions planned for FY 2009 include 
Ants, a photographic exhibition about ant behavior; Written in Bone, a major 
exhibit on forensic anthropology and the Jamestown settlement; Orchids, an 



121 



exhibition highlighting co-evolution and featuring live plants; Darwin, in 
recognition of the bicentennial of Charles Darwin's birth; and Nature's Best 
Photography, a very popular photography exhibit of animals and nature. Federal 
funding also enables NMNH to make its exhibitions available to other U.S. and 
international institutions. The effectiveness of NMNH exhibitions and 
presentations can be seen in the excitement they generate and their popularity 
with family audiences. In FY 2007, NMNH welcomed more than seven million 
visitors. 

In FY 2009, the Museum's fundamental commitment to education and 
outreach will be deepened and expanded. Building on the Museum's cutting- 
edge research, its vast collections, and its exciting new permanent and 
temporary exhibitions such as The Ocean Hall, Butterflies + Plants: Partners in 
Evolution, and Written in Bone: Life and Death in the Colonial Chesapeake, the 
Museum will reach out to a growing national and international audience, 
including children and families, students and teachers, and adults who visit the 
Museum on the Mall or its extensive site on the Web. Outreach activities will 
include traveling exhibitions, interactive electronic field trips, and in-depth, 
online resources including the new Ocean Portal, as well as longstanding 
programs of lectures, films, teacher education, and hands-on opportunities. 
These efforts serve tens of millions of visitors around the globe. In FY 2009, 
NMNH will enhance and extend its educational efforts by increasing the number 
of teacher education materials available online by 50 percent, by distributing 
2,500 new curriculum packages for each major exhibition and Website opening 
in 2009 and building on the model of the Ocean Portal to create content-based 
partnerships and networks in the research and educational communities. These 
efforts are designed to increase dramatically the reach and impact of the 
Museum, its science, and its education and outreach. 

Consistent with the guidance provided in the joint Office of Management 
and Budget-Office of Science and Technology Policy memo on FY 2009 
research and development budget priorities, NMNH will strengthen its 
commitment to the stewardship of the federal scientific collections. These 
collections play an important role in public health and safety, homeland security, 
trade and economic development, medical research, and environmental 
monitoring, as well as serving as the foundation for NMNH research, exhibits, 
and public outreach programs. NMNH will expand its commitment to research 
on and stewardship of the collections, in partnership with affiliated federal 
agencies (such as the Departments of Defense, Commerce, Agriculture, and the 
Interior), in response to this guidance. Federal funding is the linchpin for 
maintaining and preserving these priceless collections and their valuable 
information for future generations, while also supporting their use for critical 
ongoing research that, for example, facilitates recovery efforts after natural 
disasters like volcanic eruptions and the associated loss of biodiversity. The 
breadth of NMNH research and collections of biological, geological, and 

122 



anthropological objects fosters an interdisciplinary environment that attracts 
other academic institutions, foreign researchers, and national and international 
policy makers. 

Furthermore, the NMNH has a long history of training future scientists 
here and abroad to examine and monitor biodiversity in their own countries, 
among their other research endeavors, which also serves to strengthen the 
NMNH collections and connections with these countries. NMNH is committed to 
training future generations of scientists by increasing the number of its 
postdoctoral fellowship awards and providing an entry-level experience for the 
most talented undergraduates in the Earth and life sciences as well as 
anthropology. Collaboration with foreign students and colleagues will continue 
to be emphasized to broaden the international science network. Continuation of 
the Latin American Training Program in collections management, begun in 
FY 2008, serves this goal well. 

In FY 2009, NMNH will focus on adding more specimens to its electronic 
catalogue for scientists, the RCIS, and expanding the availability of these 
invaluable and unique assets via the Internet to researchers, policy makers, and 
the public both nationally and worldwide. NMNH also will continue migrating 
records from the in-house Transaction Management (TM) system into the RCIS, 
using EMu, a commercial software application for museums. TM records 
document ownership and custody of NMNH's collections as well as objects and 
collections on loan. Furthermore, NMNH will continue image digitization of 
selected plant, vertebrate, and artifact collections. In addition, NMNH will 
continue digitization of selected data sets from the 50 million additional paper 
records, and link text-based information to images, video, and audio recordings 
to make available to scientists and the public a wealth of resources (e.g., 
photographs, artwork, sound recordings, field notes, and publications) which 
describe and explain the diversity of life, culture, and Earth processes. NMNH 
will also complete the move of fluid-preserved collections to a new facility, and 
update associated inventories. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research in FY 2009, NMNH will 
build upon its updated strategic plan which is linked to the Smithsonian Science 
Plan, and focus on initiatives related to new insights in geology and mineralogy, 
paleobiology, systematics, evolutionary biology, ecology and its relationship to 
biodiversity, and anthropology. Increasing the number of digitized specimens will 
enable researchers to leverage the knowledge inherent in the diverse collections 
to address many of today's pressing issues regarding invasive species, disease 
vectors, and the impact of humans on biodiversity and climate. Smithsonian 
publications will have a more integrated quality, providing insights from all 
viewpoints of the Museum on pressing national and international topics. 



123 



In addition, NMNH will continue its work on a new scientific effort started 
in 2007, the Encyclopedia of Life. The NMNH hosts the Secretariat 
(administrative and leadership hub) for the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), which has 
the lofty goal of documenting every known species living on Earth. The EOL, 
funded through two leadership grants from foundations, is a Web-based, online 
database, which is expected in about 10 years to encompass the 1 .8 million 
known species of animals, plants, and other life forms. The database will be 
configurable for all types of audiences, from students and scientists, to policy 
makers and the general public. The NMNH is uniquely positioned to contribute 
to this global effort of documenting every known species currently living on 
Earth, through its extensive and broad collections as well as through the 
scientific staff who provide the context for these specimens. The specimens 
themselves are irrelevant without the scientific expertise that provides the 
related ecological and evolutionary information. 

In FY 2009, NMNH will address the goal of Enhanced Management 
Excellence in part by completing the move to re-house collections preserved in 
alcohol, currently located on the National Mall, into a state-of-the-art research, 
conservation, and collection storage facility at the Museum Support Center 
(MSC) in Suitland, Maryland. This facility will ensure that the alcohol-preserved 
collection will continue to be available for research in a facility that meets fire 
and safety codes. An additional focus in FY 2009 for the Natural History 
Building on the Mall will continue to be the renovation of major building systems 
and improved security in the building. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (54 FTEs and 
$5,510,000) 

• Reorganize and expand the volunteer docent program, and increase 
the number of docents by 100 percent 

• Plan, develop, and implement two family festivals to complement the 
Museum's exhibitions and research 

• Prepare and distribute new educational packages for each of the major 
exhibitions opening in 2009 

• Continue and enhance interaction with graduate training programs at 
local universities 

• Continue to increase access to exhibits, research, and collections for 
students with disabilities and for economically disadvantaged students 

• Continue to increase access to the scientific professions for minorities 
and women, with a special emphasis on museum science careers 



124 



• Host a symposium for the general public on the bicentennial of Charles 
Darwin's birth, in association with the 1 50th anniversary of the 
publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (47 FTEs and $5,311,000) 

• Complete design and 90 percent fabrication for the new 1 5,000-square- 
foot Human Origins exhibition scheduled to open in November 2009 

• Complete fabrication and open a major, original 5,000-square-foot 
temporary exhibition, Written in Bone, in February 2009 on forensic 
anthropology and the Jamestown settlement 

• Open four new temporary exhibitions — Nature's Best Photography 
(Fall 2009); Darwin (Summer 2009) to mark the bicentennial of 
Charles Darwin's birth and the 1 50th anniversary of the first 
publication of On the Origin of Species; Ants, a photographic exhibit 
on ant behavior (Spring 2009); and Orchids (January 2009) 

• Complete 95 percent design for Yupik, a new temporary exhibition 
scheduled to open in early 2010 on the Yupik Eskimo in western Alaska 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and future 
generations (140 FTEs and $16,080,000) 

• Continue work on the next phase of a Museum-wide collections 
assessment that sets priorities for collections care projects and 
provides comparable, current information about the status of the 
collections 

• Continue image digitization of selected plant, vertebrate, and artifact 
collections, including completion of digitization of botanical type 
specimens for Web access 

• Continue project to conserve all botanical specimens from the U.S. 
Exploring (Wilkes) Expedition that were preserved with mercuric chloride 

• Provide conservation treatments to fossil collections in need of 
physical stabilization, vertebrate skeletons (including human skeletal 
remains in need of re-housing), and geological collections in need of 
chemical stabilization 

• Re-house DNA collections, update inventory, and continue assessing 
incremental results from pilot project that informs the most effective 
conservation strategies for these tissue collections and supports their 
accessibility to the wider scientific community 

• Continue to re-house marine mammals collections with new collection 
cabinets, and begin re-housing of botanical collections with new 
collection cabinets 

• Continue making records of paleontological, botanical, entomological, 
zoological, and anthropological specimens and objects and associated 
data universally available on the Web 

• Continue migrating records from the in-house TM system into the 
RCIS, using EMu, a commercial software application for museums. TM 



125 



records document ownership and custody of NMNH collections as well 
as objects and collections on loan 

• Continue digitization of selected sets from within the 50 million 
additional paper records, and link text-based information to images, 
video, and audio recordings to make available to scientists and the 
public a wealth of resources (e.g., photographs, art, sounds, field 
notes, and publications) that describe and explain the diversity of life, 
culture, and Earth processes 

• Continue migrating digital images of collection items to the Institution- 
wide Digital Asset Management (DAM) system 

• Develop improved functionality of the EMu system, including faster 
importing and exporting of data and reports 

• Continue to implement the congressionally authorized program of 
repatriating Native American skeletal remains and associated objects 

• Complete the move of fluid-preserved collections to the new Pod 5, 
update associated inventories, and correct any container, preservative, 
or labeling problems resulting from the move 

• Continue providing collections to national and international researchers 
through the collections loan program 

• Continue to make progress on an inventory of several high-value 
collections as recommended by the Inspector General as part of the 
2006 collection inventory and security audit, including: phase 3 of 
minerals reference collection; the inventory of meteorites; and the 
inventory the Burgess Shale collection 

• Prepare for the upcoming move of eight million feet of ethnographic 
film in the Human Studies Film Archives into the renovated Pod 3 at 
the MSC 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin and 
evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, and human 
culture (128 FTEs and $16,464,000) 

• Continue to implement NMNH's strategic plan linked to the Institution- 
wide Science Enterprise Plan, focusing on three fundamental themes: 

1) formation and evolution of the Earth and similar planets; 2) discovering 
and understanding life's diversity; and 3) understanding human diversity 
and cultural change 
The Formation and Evolution of Earth and Other Planets 

• Continue research on asteroid differentiation and geochemical 
consequences for carbon, and alteration in Martian meteorites 

• Continue to analyze prebiotic materials in the first samples returned 
from a comet by a NASA spacecraft 

• Continue work on the geological history of global climate change with 
a special emphasis on periods of global warming 



126 



• Continue work on ocean environments and circulation, focusing on 
past intervals and greenhouse climate 

Discovering and Understanding Life's Diversity 

• Continue studies of the large-scale evolutionary relationships among 
birds, insects, and plants as part of collaborative research projects in the 
National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Tree of Life initiative, and, in 
particular, studies of the large-scale evolutionary relationships among 
Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), spiders, and ants. The primary goal 
of the Tree of Life initiative is to produce a robust phylogeny of all oldest 
lineages within a particular group of organisms, which will provide an 
important predictive framework for diverse purposes, including 
biodiversity studies 

• Continue research on the tempo and mode of evolution in deep-sea 
faunas 

• Inventory and digitize diatom type collections in Botany for Web access, 
and continue digitizing images and radiographs of primary types in the 
Fishes collection 

• Continue research into the geological history of plant-animal interactions 

• Continue work on evolution and phylogenetic relationships of dinosaurs 

• Continue exploring the diversity of various groups of vertebrates, 
particularly in tropical regions, with emphasis on undescribed forms 
and the development of comprehensive studies of various groups, 
their phylogenies, and biogeographic histories 

• Continue studies of deep-sea invertebrates from the Gulf of Mexico, 
including exploration of poorly known regions such as cold seeps and 
petroleum seeps, which are home to a diverse but still largely unknown 
community of animals. This research is being done in collaboration with 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Texas 
A&M University at Corpus Christi 

• Continue to make entomological primary type specimens and images 
available on the Web 

• Continue molecular-phylogenetic and population-genetic studies of, 
and develop checklists for the identification and inventories for, 
various plant families, with an emphasis on plants in the environments 
of the Pacific, northern South America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, 
and specific marine ecologies 

• Continue to sample insects and spiders from poorly sampled localities, 
particularly beetles, ants, spiders, and moths and butterflies from Central 
and South America 

• Continue research on ecological recoveries from mass extinctions and the 
evolution of innovations in the history of life, with special emphasis on 
the Cambrian explosion, the Permo-Triassic, and the early Cenozoic eras 

• Continue to host the Executive Secretariat for the Encyclopedia of Life 
(EOL), an international effort funded by two large grants from foundations 



127 



to construct one website where information can be found on all known 
species of life 

• Continue to host the Secretariat for the Consortium on the Barcode of 
Life, and participate in the working group on plants, with the goal of 
determining the optimal barcode region for land plants 

Understanding Human Diversity and Cultural Change 

• Continue to support the Endangered Language Program, which will 
preserve and make accessible through digitization more than 1 1,400 
sound recordings of endangered languages in the National 
Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives, many of 
which currently exist only on endangered recording media 

• Continue research on human/environment interaction within the 
climatic and environmental context of human evolution in East Africa 

• Continue research on the development of coastal and deltaic 
environments as early centers of urbanization 

• Continue interdisciplinary fieldwork in Mongolia to study the 
development of early civilizations in Central Asia 

• Continue research into the spread of the earliest humans from Africa 
and Asia, with funding from NSF 

• Conduct research into how and when human beings first processed 
and cultivated cereal grains, illuminating how the human species went 
from being primarily hunter-gatherers to becoming farmers 

• Continue research on the origins of animal domestication 

• Continue research on cultural responses to globalization 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities (3 FTEs and $319,000} 

• Provide curatorial and technical support for continuing renovation of 
the Natural History Building and the occupation of a new facility at the 
MSC to re-house collections preserved in alcohol 

• Provide oversight and review of the Natural History Building's long- 
term facilities heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) efforts 
and renovation, and restoration of public exhibit spaces 

Provide a safe and healthy environment to support Smithsonian programs 
(2 FTEs and $228,000) 

• Implement extensive inspection and training efforts to provide the highest 
quality safety program for NMNH to continue to reduce identified safety 
problems and ensure that new problems do not develop 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (12 FTEs and $1,308,000) 

• Maintain desktop and application server support for NMNH functions 

• Work with resources provided by the Office of the Chief Information 
Officer to replace desktop computers on a three-year cycle 



128 



• Ensure that all users of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system 
have compatible hardware and software to support all transactions 

• Create a robust and reliable infrastructure for new online facilities and 
broader Web programs that support NMNH-specific electronic 
outreach goals, with a focus on making collections data easily 
accessible via the Internet, as well as developing important 
collaborative Web projects such as the Ocean Portal 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (10 FTEs and $ 1, 160,000) 

• Train all staff responsible for financial, budget, procurement, and 
human resources transactions to implement the ERP system as it is 
deployed 

• Recruit, hire, and train staff to perform core administrative functions 

• Implement the NMNH strategic plan and annual performance activities, 
and ensure that these efforts are linked to the Smithsonian Science 
Strategic Plan 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries and 
benefits of administrative personnel, development and business activities, and 
other program-related costs. The Museum raises funds from private sources to 
support research, public programs, and administrative functions. This includes 
securing funds for special events to promote new exhibitions and educational 
initiatives, and public outreach through the news media. Donor/sponsor- 
designated funds are critical to support exhibition hall renovation, such as the 
major gift that is helping to fund the Museum's Ocean Hall, which will open in 
September 2008 along with the first fully endowed Chair at the Museum. The 
Museum has also received two generous gifts that will fund the Hall of Human 
Origins, scheduled to open in November 2009. Other examples include the 
Johnson and Hunterdon endowments, which provide all operating support for 
the Smithsonian Marine Station in Fort Pierce, Florida, in addition to supplying a 
significant portion of the base funds needed to run the NMNH research station 
at Carrie Bow Cay in Belize. The endowments also support research in the 
biodiversity, life histories, and ecology of marine organisms in the coastal 
waters of Florida by almost 50 scientists each year, including staff from NMNH, 
the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, the Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute, and collaborators from universities nationwide. 

In addition, researchers in the Departments of Mineral Sciences and 
Paleobiology continue to receive significant amounts of funding from NASA and 
the NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, in the form of matching funds toward upgrades in 
equipment that enable NMNH researchers to analyze smaller and smaller 
particles of extraterrestrial matter, and in the form of support for a variety of 
research programs dealing with subjects ranging from Antarctic meteorites to 
the geology of Meishan, China, where evidence for the greatest extinction in the 
history of life can be studied. The Museum was awarded 70 grants and 

129 



contracts in FY 2007, totaling $13,701,036. These funds support both cutting- 
edge research and exhibitions, and demonstrate international collaboration in 
addition to cross-agency collaboration on shared projects and issues. Two 
significant grants have been awarded to the NMNH for the Encyclopedia of Life, 
an ambitious project designed to organize the totality of information about the 
world's known species. 

In addition to funds received from NOAA for the new Ocean Hall slated to 
open in late FY 2008, NMNH has also received $350,000 in foundation funds 
towards the Ocean initiative. Significant funding from the U.S. Air Force and the 
U.S. Department of Transportation continues to support the bird/aircraft strike 
hazard program that provides critical data to the FAA and other agencies on the 
types of birds that can get caught in airplane engines. The Museum's forensic 
anthropology program continued to receive support from the FBI, and the 
Museum received funds from the State of California for work on the Tree of 
Life, specifically on an evolutionary tree of ants, considered to be the world's 
premier social organisms. Finally, NMNH's leadership in training the next 
generation of scientists and collections managers received a significant boost 
from the International Development Bank and the Andrew Mellon Foundation, 
with funding to implement a collections training initiative designed to strengthen 
technical and scientific cooperation with Latin American countries. 



130 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


209 


20,878 


10 


1,041 


16 


7,321 


3 


812 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


217 


21,708 


10 


1,100 


17 


3,953 


4 


900 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


220 


22,554 


10 


1,100 


17 


3,953 


4 


900 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


2 


252 


2 


267 





15 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


115 


10,149 


115 


9,834 





-315 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


49 


5,884 


51 


6,024 


2 


140 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


30 


2,261 


30 


2,686 





425 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Security and Safety 














Provide a safe and healthy environment 


4 


685 


5 


774 


1 


89 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


4 


802 


4 


862 





60 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is 
customer centered and results oriented 


9 


1,109 


9 


1,531 





422 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, 
collaborative, committed, innovative, and diverse 





100 





100 








Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media 
and with Federal, state, and local governments 


4 


466 


4 


476 





10 


Total 


217 


21,708 


220 


22,554 


3 


846 



131 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

As the Nation's Zoo, the mission of the National Zoological Park (NZP) 
is to provide leadership in animal care, conservation science, education, and 
sustainability. The Zoo has outlined an ambitious new strategic plan with the 
goal of, by 2016, being recognized as the world's finest zoo, providing the 
highest quality animal care; advancing scientific excellence in conserving 
wildlife; teaching and inspiring people to engage in conservation of wildlife, 
water, and habitats; and practicing conservation leadership. 

Consistent with the overarching objectives of the Institution, the NZP has 
established specific goals and performance metrics to fulfill its mission and 
achieve its vision. The Zoo has set as its highest priority an aggressive, long- 
range facilities maintenance and revitalization plan that ensures optimal safety 
and protection of facilities, collections, visitors, staff, and volunteers. This will 
provide the necessary infrastructure to achieve NZP's programmatic goals. In 
support of the Smithsonian's goal of Increased Public Engagement, the Zoo will 
offer compelling, first-class exhibits; judiciously build, refine, and care for its 
animal and plant collections; and extend the reach of its educational programs, 
both for the general public and for professionals in the conservation sciences. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, the NZP will expand 
programs that integrate research on both Zoo animals and species in the 
wild, resulting in synergies that benefit the health and well-being of both 
populations, as well as the human societies that interact with these diverse 
animals. The Zoo will continue to develop strategic partnerships with other 
Smithsonian units and external organizations to complement its strengths in 
veterinary medicine, reproductive sciences, and conservation biology. Under 
the Smithsonian Strategic Science Plan, the Zoo will pursue focused research 
on life's diversity, including partnership-based and multi-disciplinary studies 
of extinction-prone species and their habitats. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, the Zoo will 
focus on increased attention to safety and health of the staff and collections, 
continue to apply integrated pest management throughout its facilities, 
modernize information systems for management purposes and for 
communicating the Zoo's stories and messages to the public, and enhance 
the skills of staff and managers to increase their effectiveness. Major 
improvements already have been made in these and other areas that were 
cited as concerns in the 2003 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) 
accreditation inspection, in the 2003-2006 U.S. Department of Agriculture 
(USDA) inspection findings, and in the 2004 and 2005 reports of the 
National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The National Zoo is preparing once 
again for AZA re-accreditation in 2008. 



132 



For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of 3 FTEs and 
$846,000. Included is an increase of $546,000 for necessary pay for 
existing staff funded under this line item. In addition, the NZP is seeking a 
programmatic increase of 3 FTEs and $300,000 for animal welfare and staff 
safety. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, the NZP 
continues to devote significant resources to its animal habitats and the care 
of the animals in the Zoo — recognizing that both are essential for the overall 
health and safety of the animal collection — as well as to ensure a high- 
quality visitor experience. A major portion of the NZP staff and budget will 
continue to be used to provide state-of-the-art medical care, nutrition, 
husbandry, and safe and enriching environments for all NZP animals at both 
the Zoo's public exhibitions in Washington, DCs Rock Creek Park and its 
Conservation and Research Center at Front Royal, Virginia. 

Animal exhibits will continue to be upgraded, using the strategy of 
customizing or tailoring exhibit spaces to reflect the specific needs of the animal 
species, particularly with regard to their overall welfare and behavioral needs. 
Each species' behavior and natural history will be considered when designing 
habitats to stimulate natural behaviors for foraging, hunting, and breeding. 
Planned exhibit improvements will expand opportunities for animal enrichment; 
support behavioral, nutritional, or reproductive studies; and provide Zoo visitors 
with an inspiring and educational experience. Staff continue to update and 
improve the Zoo's popular website, rated by Web visitors as excellent in amount 
and quality of information and design. The website provides enhanced content 
to supplement exhibit content, with a focus in 2009 on developing materials 
about our exhibit renovations such as for Asian elephants, and to enable people 
who cannot visit the Zoo in person, due to distance or infirmity, to enjoy a rich, 
educational virtual experience. Devising better ways to use the website's 
popular webcams for educational purposes is a priority, as is connecting the 
public to the Zoo's science and conservation programs through online 
experiences. In 2007, these efforts included links to an Antarctic Expedition, 
the Przewalski's Horse Satellite Tracking project, and a dolphin program. In 
2007, the website hosted about 13,000 pages and attracted 30 million visitors, 
maintaining the record-breaking numbers of 2006. Surveys to be conducted in 
2009 will guide future development of the website. 

Numerous aging or failed exhibit, staff, and visitor areas are being 
revitalized as the NZP continues renovating and modernizing the Zoo. A 
priority will be upgrading the inadequate fire-detection and suppression 
systems throughout the Rock Creek Park and Front Royal facilities. A no- 
smoking policy was implemented in all public areas and buildings on January 

133 



1, 2007, to minimize the risk of fire. In coordination with the Office of 
Facilities Engineering and Operations (OFEO), a review of the regular 
maintenance needs of these systems, addition of systems where none 
currently exists, and replacement of failing systems has been made and 
incorporated in the Zoo's Facilities Capital Program. 

In FY 2007, the NZP assessed the success of Asia Trail I, which 
opened in October 2006. The feedback from visitors was overwhelmingly 
positive, especially with regard to the horticultural elements. The Zoo 
provided programmatic guidance to design and began construction of a new 
elephant "wing" that incorporates modern science and husbandry 
requirements into the historic Elephant House, which was built in the 1890s 
and last renovated in the 1930s. With input from other in situ and ex situ 
elephant experts around the world, the NZP has designed a series of habitats 
for its elephants that will stimulate a variety of natural behaviors and 
exercise. The Zoo will continue to incorporate and link science into existing 
and new exhibits, while also increasing the visibility and scope of its 
conservation efforts through demonstrations, the website, and various other 
media. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, the NZP continues to 
address significant scientific and conservation issues of key species and 
critical habitats by studying animals in the field and in captive environments. 
The NZP will enhance the integration of science with exhibits, selection and 
care of the animal collection, educational programs, and the overall facilities 
master plan. Scientific, curatorial, and veterinary personnel are working 
together to study the medical needs, reproductive patterns, behavior, habitat 
use, interaction with people, and populations of numerous threatened and 
endangered species, including the cheetah, tiger, clouded leopard, black- 
footed ferret, Przewalski's horse, and Asian elephant. Ongoing studies on 
these and many other species will help secure sustainable wild and captive 
populations, and are conducted in collaboration with other scientific 
zoological and conservation organizations worldwide. NZP scientists will 
continue to share this research with the public and a wide range of scholars, 
university researchers, and field biologists, and will use their findings to 
enhance the health and welfare of the NZP collection and strengthen NZP 
exhibits as well as educational and outreach programs. The NZP continues to 
invite students and outside colleagues to participate and collaborate in 
efforts to increase the Zoo's capacity for scientific research and science- 
based professional training programs. More than 350 professionals 
participated in NZP training programs in FY 2007, making the Zoo a major 
center of conservation-based training. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, The NZP 
has increased safety training and set a goal of zero injuries. Zoonotic training 

134 



and increased biosecurity protocols have been implemented to minimize 
health risks to staff and the animal collection. The NZP is aggressively 
executing its strategic and long-range renewal plans and continuing its 
modernization and improvement programs in the areas of life, health, and 
safety of people and animals, animal nutrition (including food distribution), 
pest management, training, records management, and information 
technology. In addition, The NZP continually assesses its around-the-clock 
infrastructure support operation for animal exhibits to ensure the safety and 
well-being of the collection, visitors, facilities, and staff. The Zoo's master 
planning efforts, begun in January 2005, will incorporate the strategic plan, 
collection and exhibit plans, science priorities, and visitor amenities, and will 
establish priorities for facility renovation and improvements at both the Rock 
Creek Park and Front Royal sites. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (2 FTEs and $267,000) 

• Coordinate the many opportunities for learning that exist in the Zoo 
environment — including exhibit graphics, informal talks provided 
by volunteer interpreters and keepers, and structured classes, 
special events, and courses — to encourage audiences of all ages 
to appreciate the diversity of wildlife and the impact of human 
behavior on habitats 

• Use current and new affiliations and special programs to reach out 
to students, educators and families, and increase scientific literacy 
and understanding. The NZP will focus on hands-on, "citizen 
science" programming to engage the many and diverse 
communities in both the greater Washington, DC and northern 
Shenandoah regions. After-school programs will be specifically 
targeted to engage youngsters in inquiry-based scientific 
exploration that builds on Zoo-related research 

• Respond to the Science Standards of Learning, which increasingly 
shape the K-12 curricula, by providing case studies that bring to 
life essential concepts through a variety of tools, including self- 
guided tours of the Zoo, in-class resources, and videoconferencing 
opportunities that link classes with Zoo experts 

• Provide educational programming built on sound scientific content, 
with special attention to the contributions that Smithsonian 
scientists make to understanding wildlife and conservation 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at the Smithsonian and across 
the nation (115 FTEs and $9,834,000) 

• Continue to upgrade fire protection in animal exhibit areas to 
ensure that exhibits are safe for the Zoo's living collection and the 



135 



public and meet the new National Fire Protection Association 
(NFPA) regulation "Fire and Life Safety for Animal Housing 
Facilities," which was issued in July 2006 

• Continue construction on the Zoo's historic Elephant House facility, 
habitat, and exhibit 

• Improve interpretation, graphics, interactive media, signage, and 
the overall park presentation, concentrating on the visitor 
experience to improve cleanliness, amenities, access, and comfort, 
and incorporate recycling and use of sustainable products 

• Replace aging camera systems with newer IP-based and wireless 
mesh-grid technology that takes advantage of advanced 
networking features and camera-resolution improvements. Establish 
a hosted access presence to ensure that growth demands are met 
as they occur 

• Use the collection planning process to increase the size and 
diversity of the animal collection to strengthen the NZP's exhibition 
and outreach efforts while identifying priority species deserving 
research and conservation attention 

• Incorporate at least two videos and one live webcam feed from the 
field into public exhibitions and the public website, 
www.nationalzoo.si.edu 

• Continue the exhibit improvement program to renovate and 
upgrade existing exhibits, landscapes, and animal habitats, 
including effective, creative interpretation of the Zoo's science and 
conservation messages in these areas 

• Support the Botanical Garden goal while documenting plant 
collections and mapping park landscapes 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (51 FTEs and 
$6,024,000) 

• Improve the stewardship of the collection by providing fire 
protection and fire safety through upgrading or installing fire- 
suppression and smoke-detection and evacuation systems, 
improving the water main distribution system, and upgrading the 
central control system 

• Conduct continual review and training on protocols to minimize the 
risk to the collection due to fire or other emergencies during and 
after normal operating hours 

• Continue regular preventive medical exams for appropriate animals 
at both the Rock Creek Park Zoo and the collection at the Front 
Royal, Virginia, Conservation and Research Center 

• Continue to meet the nutritional needs of the animal collection 
through routine monitoring of diets, improved quality control of 
daily feedings, and increased centralization of diet preparation 



136 



• Continue to update and maintain animal diet database to exceed 
AZA and other appropriate guidelines 

• Conduct annual reviews of all animal diets, food storage, handling 
and preparation methods, diet presentation, and record keeping 
associated with nutritional management of the collections 

• Monitor effectiveness of centralized commissary operations 

• Increase forage production at the Front Royal facility, yielding 
higher-quality forage over a longer growing season 

• Work within the NZP, and with other zoos, to implement and 
promote the use of the new Zoological Information Management 
System (ZIMS) as a global database resource for improving animal 
care and knowledge of animals 

• Work within the NZP and with other AZA zoos to develop and 
implement taxon-based standardized guidelines for animal care as a 
global resource for improving the care and well-being of wild 
animals in captivity 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on discovering and 
understanding life's diversity (30 FTEs and $2,686,000) 

• Continue in situ and ex situ research on surveillance of wildlife 
health, disease, emerging infectious diseases, and the interfaces 
between wildlife, domestic animals, and human health, which is a 
federal research priority area. Such research will be enhanced by 
the collections data available through ZIMS 

• Build upon the NZP-George Mason University conservation biology 
program to enhance and expand undergraduate and graduate 
student training. This includes continuing to explore an increased 
presence of university activities at the Zoo's Conservation and 
Research Center 

• Work with federal agencies, universities, and nongovernmental 
organizations, including the AZA, to provide professional training in 
ecological and biodiversity monitoring, geographic information 
systems applications, veterinary medicine, comparative nutrition, 
reproductive biology, conservation genetics, wildlife management, 
and animal behavior 

• Serve as expert technical advisors to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, other governmental agencies, and conservation 
organizations to promote the recovery of threatened and 
endangered species and their habitats 

• Expand ongoing conservation and research efforts for selected 
endangered species under the auspices of the Conservation 
Centers for Species Survival (CCSS) consortium (e.g., The Wilds 
[Ohio], White Oak Conservation Center [Florida], Fossil Rim Wildlife 



137 



Center [Texas], and Zoological Society of San Diego [California]) to 
secure sustainable wild and captive populations 

• Provide leadership in advancing the sciences of reproductive 
physiology, ecological nutrition, veterinary medicine, biodiversity 
assessment, conservation genetics, and small population 
management, with priorities established by the NZP Science Plan 

• Increase the Zoo's collection-based research on Asian elephants, 
giant pandas and other bears, kori bustards, cheetahs, Sahelo- 
Saharan antelopes, equids, several species of endangered frogs, 
Japanese giant salamanders, Pacific giant octopus, Atlantic 
cuttlefish, tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals, freshwater 
stingrays, and electric fishes 

• Share research results with the global scientific community by 
publishing more than 100 peer-reviewed technical publications 
annually 

• Train at least 10 postdoctoral Fellows, 30 graduate students, and 
30 undergraduates annually in reproductive sciences and 
conservation biology 

• Work with partners in the National Ecological Observatory Network 
(NEON) to establish the NSF-funded Mid-Atlantic Regional 
Ecological Observatory (MAREO) core-site at the NZP Conservation 
and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia 

• Increase integration of zoo- and field-based research to improve the 
overall impact of the NZP's conservation and educational programs 

• Continue to integrate science at the NZP with animal husbandry, 
exhibits, and education, especially through the improvements under 
way in the Asian elephant program and the opportunities now 
available with the new cheetah breeding and science facility at the 
Conservation and Research Center 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Provide a safe and healthy environment to support Smithsonian 
programs (5 FTEs and $774,000) 

• Meet or exceed code requirements in all animal holding and human- 
occupied facilities at both the Rock Creek Park and Front Royal sites. 
Systems to be installed or upgraded include fire alarms and reporting, 
fire detection, fire suppression (e.g., sprinklers), smoke evacuation, 
fire-separation barriers, and emergency lighting and power 

• Expand biosecurity practices throughout Zoo facilities to minimize 
risk of Avian Flu and other diseases among the Zoo collections and 
transmission of diseases between the collections and the staff 

• Continue to assess and monitor animal enclosures to ensure visitor 
safety 



138 



Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (4 FTEs and $862,000) 

• Continue to develop ZIMS and other tools which will allow access 
to a complete information context in remote and field areas 

• Monitor implementation of computer security protocols, including 
regular password changes, to reduce risk of penetration by hackers 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (9 FTEs and $ 1,531,000) 

• Prioritize NZP facilities projects to ensure the safety of animal 
collections, staff, and visitors, and to support the implementation 
of the Zoo's master plan 

• Assess the effectiveness of management support to increase 
efficiency and ensure timely processing of procurement, travel, and 
other program requirements as well as to meet the Institution's 
reporting responsibilities 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse ($100,000) 

• Enhance the skills of staff, supervisors, and managers to increase 
their effectiveness 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (4 FTEs and $476,000) 

• Enhance the Zoo's national and international exposure by 
promoting the Zoo's success stories in science, animal care, and 
education through regular news releases, photo releases, 
interviews, and press briefings to local and national news outlets, 
as well as popular and professional journals and magazines 

• Increase the Zoo's credibility with the news media by meeting 
journalists' needs and answering their queries in a timely, efficient, 
and productive manner 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of 3 FTEs and 
$846,000. Included is an increase of $546,000 for necessary pay for existing 
staff funded under this line item. In addition, the NZP is seeking a programmatic 
increase of 3 FTEs and $300,000 for animal welfare and staff safety. The 
increases are as follows: 

• ( + $213,000, +2 FTEs) This increase is requested for animal welfare and 
staff safety and health. There is only one veterinary technician at the NZP 
facility at Front Royal, with no backup for days off, weekend coverage, and 
emergencies. This request for an additional GS-9 veterinary technician 
enables the Zoo to be more responsive to the medical needs of its growing 

139 



animal population without taxing the limits of one individual. The new 
cheetah breeding and science facility at Front Royal requires a GS-1 1 
biologist to oversee their husbandry and monitor their health and welfare. 
There is also an increased need for medicines, hospital and pathology 
supplies, and service contracts. 

• ( + $87,000, + 1 FTE) This increase is requested to provide for a GS-1 1 

safety specialist. Currently, there is no one at the NZP facility at Front Royal 
to oversee the safety requirements, and safety findings have increased as 
the size of the collection, number of students, and activities have grown at 
the Conservation and Research Center. 

If the FY 2009 budget request is not allowed, the NZP will not be able to 
adequately support the health and welfare of the animal collection and the 
safety findings will continue to increase, putting staff, students, and animals at 
risk. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits of education personnel, general operational support to ensure 
adequate animal care, science outreach activities, and animal acquisitions. 
Donor/sponsor-designated funds support the costs related to specific 
programs and projects, including field and captive studies on Sahelo-Saharan 
antelopes, cheetahs, giant pandas, Asian elephants, tigers and clouded 
leopards, ecological studies on migratory birds, and the documentation and 
monitoring of biodiversity and habitat quality in selected sites around the 
world. In addition, donor/sponsor-designated funds also support continuing 
research and conservation training in southern Africa. A large percentage of 
these funds supplement federal funding for renovating and modernizing the 
Zoo. Private donations for the Asia Trail II, "Elephant Trails," contribute to a 
portion of construction costs and support all exhibit interpretive design and 
implementation. Government grants and contracts support a wide array of 
scientific studies on the biology and habitats of endangered and threatened 
species. Government grants presently support field studies on Weddell seals 
in the Antarctic, reproductive studies on rare cat and canid (dog) species, 
and the effects of maternal obesity on birth outcomes in marmosets. NZP 
education, visitor services, and volunteer programs are funded almost 
exclusively by Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ). 



140 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


108 


23,579 


6 


2,563 


15 


2,781 


330 


84,345 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


113 


23,311 


6 


1,966 


3 


747 


425 


85,538 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


113 


23,736 


6 


1,966 


3 


733 


425 


85,538 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Ch 


ange 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


3 


700 


3 


700 








Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


105 


21,192 


105 


21,617 





425 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 





540 





540 








Management Operations 














Ensure that the workforce is efficient, 
collaborative, committed, innovative, and diverse 


5 


879 


5 


879 








Total 


113 


23,311 


113 


23,736 





425 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The mission of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is to 
advance the public's knowledge and understanding of the universe through 
research and education in astronomy and astrophysics. SAO engages in 
cutting-edge research in areas ranging from small, individual projects to 



141 



major partnerships with other government organizations and academic 
institutions, and which involve unique ground- and space-based facilities to 
study the breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to 
infrared and visible light to x-rays and the highest energy gamma rays. These 
varied activities create the distinctively fertile research environment that 
underpins SAO's success. 

Founded in 1890, SAO is the largest and most diverse astrophysical 
institution in the world. It has pioneered the development of orbiting 
observatories and large, ground-based telescopes; the application of 
computers to study astrophysical problems; and the integration of laboratory 
measurements and theoretical astrophysics. Observational data are gathered at 
SAO's premier facilities: the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii; the 6.5- 
meter Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging 
Telescope Array System (VERITAS), and related telescopes at the Fred 
Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona; a broad range of powerful 
instruments aboard rockets, balloons, and spacecraft (most notably the 
Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope); and locations as 
diverse as the high plateaus of northern Chile and the Amundsen South Pole 
Station. Headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, SAO is a partner in the 
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, along with the Harvard College 
Observatory. 

During the past 50 years, SAO astronomers and their colleagues have 
made revolutionary discoveries that have changed our fundamental 
understanding of the universe and our place in it. We have discovered and 
examined extrasolar planets, watched as new stars are born, and discovered 
bizarre remnants of dead stars that emit vast quantities of x-rays. We have 
determined that the age of the universe is about 14 billion years, and that it 
is populated with billions of galaxies, many of which have supermassive 
black holes at their centers. In addition, we have found convincing evidence 
that most of the matter in the universe is unseen "dark matter," with normal 
matter comprising less than four percent of the total; and that the expansion 
of the universe is apparently accelerating, driven by a mysterious and 
invisible "dark energy." At the same time, SAO astronomers work 
systematically on the vital basic research that seeks to explain the sun and 
its x-ray-emitting corona, the nature of the solar system, the abundant 
elements in our Milky Way galaxy, the gas and dust between the stars, the 
formation and evolution of galaxies, and other important questions about the 
nature of the universe. Today, SAO is poised to make the connections 
between all these discoveries, large and small, and produce a coherent story 
of the cosmos from the Big Bang to life here on Earth. 



142 



SAO's research is unique and world renowned because of the strength of 
its diverse, expert staff of observers, theoreticians, instrumentalists, and 
laboratory experimentalists, and because it emphasizes multiple strategies, 
which draw from the strengths of both small projects and large research 
centers. Indeed, SAO's extraordinary research success is partly the result of the 
rich cross-fertilization that its outstanding scholars bring to each other in a 
climate that nurtures collaborative excellence. SAO's discoveries, and its 
research leadership, have placed it at the forefront of the new generation of 
astronomers and astrophysicists. Together with its partner, the Harvard College 
Observatory, SAO is the top choice of graduate- and postdoctoral-level young 
scientists. Federal support makes this leadership possible. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $425,000 
for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, SAO will produce 
and deliver educational services and products that are rooted in SAO research 
and that meet the educational needs of SAO's audiences. This sustained 
outreach effort will give SAO increased publicity and recognition. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, SAO scientists will make 
optimal use of various astronomical facilities to support their research, 
including the ground-based optical and radio telescopes owned and operated 
by SAO in Arizona and Hawaii, and space-based telescopes, most notably the 
Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is operated by SAO on behalf of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SAO scientists also 
have research privileges at the two 6.5-meter Magellan telescopes in northern 
Chile (because of SAO's partnership with the Harvard College Observatory). In 
addition, SAO scientists and engineers are leading the science operations team 
and carrying out a vital science research program in very high-energy 
astrophysics at the VERITAS telescope in southern Arizona. These facilities 
enable SAO scientists to make substantial progress in answering fundamental 
questions about the origin and nature of the universe, as well as questions 
about the formation and evolution of Earth and similar planets — two of the 
four science themes endorsed by the SI Science Strategic Plan. 

SAO scientists will continue to take a leadership role in astrophysics by 
participating in or hosting national and international conferences (e.g., the 
American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and the 
Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems conference series), and by 
participating as keynote and/or invited speakers at such meetings. SAO 
scientists will also continue to publish in leading peer-reviewed journals such as 



143 



the Astrophysical Journal, the Astronomical Journal, and Astronomy & 
Astrophysics. SAO developed and operates the Astrophysics Data System, 
which is a world leader in the dissemination of scientific literature. 

The goal of Enhanced Management Excellence will be achieved by 
making SAO's information technology (IT) infrastructure robust, reliable, and 
secure; maintaining a cooperative environment through communication and 
activities that underscore SAO's special mission and each staff member's 
contribution to its success; evaluating management officials and supervisors 
on their compliance with applicable equal opportunity laws, rules, and 
regulations, and on the effectiveness of their efforts to achieve a diverse 
workforce; and facilitating the use of small, minority, women-owned, and 
other underused businesses in SAO's procurement and business relationships. 
These management tools support and enhance SAO's scientific and 
educational missions. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Provide reference services and information to the public (3 FTEs and 
$700,000) 

Expand Web-based reference services for the rapid public 

dissemination of new SAO research results, reference materials, 

and information to diverse audiences 

Deliver frequent educational presentations at national, state, and 

local meetings and conferences 

Develop a traveling exhibition on black holes and organize a 

national tour 

Increase registrations for school sites participating in professional 

development provided by the SAO-operated Annenberg Channel 

Present research findings at professional workshops and 

practitioner conferences and publish papers on educational research 

Carry out Micro-Observatory operations, a remotely controlled 

telescope network that reaches approximately 100 participating 

schools and 5,000 public users 

Strengthened Scientific Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin 
and evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, 
and human culture (105 FTEs and $21,617,000) 

• Maintain a high rate of publishing significant research results in 
professional journals 

• Maintain a high level of leadership and participation at professional 
meetings 



144 



Seek non-Institution funding to augment support for scientific 

research 

Leverage Institution funding by sharing resources for large projects, 

which increases the scope of scientific opportunity and 

involvement of the research staff 

Use the collection of instruments, facilities, and expert staff at 

SAO to probe key scientific problems in astronomy, including the 

nature of extrasolar planets, star and planet formation, the origins 

of very energetic cosmic rays, the properties of space-time near 

black holes, the formation of structure in the universe, and the 

nature of dark matter and dark energy 

Conduct cutting-edge research using SAO's telescopes, including 

the MMT, SMA, and VERITAS; and NASA's space-based 

telescopes, including the Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes, 

and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which SAO now operates on 

behalf of NASA 

o SAO's Submillimeter Array (SMA) will expand its 
capabilities with technology that doubles the receiver 
bandwidth (single-receiver operation), thus nearly doubling 
the throughput/sensitivity of the Array. This improvement 
will enable SAO scientists to make unprecedented new 
studies, including observations of the black hole at the 
center of the Milky Way and of solar systems developing 
around other stars. 
o SAO will continue work on the spectacular new instrument, 
Binospec, and deliver it to the MMT. Binospec will enable 
researchers to conduct very high-efficiency spectroscopic 
studies of very faint objects, thereby enabling SAO 
scientists to study galaxy formation, and to help them 
characterize the pervasive dark energy in the cosmos. 
o SAO scientists will continue multi-wavelength studies of a 
variety of cosmic objects, making extensive use of NASA's 
suite of great observatories (the Hubble and Spitzer Space 
Telescopes and the Chandra X-ray Observatory) along with 
other international space missions such as Swift, 
Planck/Herschel, Suzako, and Hinode. 
o SAO scientists will explore the highest energy processes in 
the universe with the recently commissioned VERITAS and, 
when launched, NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space 
Telescope (GLAST) Observatory. 
Develop new scientific instruments which will enable previously 
impossible investigations 

Develop new computational tools to enable advanced data analysis, 
data-mining, and theoretical modeling 



145 



Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution 's information technology systems and 
infrastructure ($540,000) 

• Modernize IT systems and infrastructure at SAO 

• Participate in the implementation of the Enterprise Resource 
Planning system 

• Review and improve administrative processes 

Ensure that the Smithsonian's workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (5 FTEs and $879,000) 

• Inform staff about SAO research discoveries and progress, 
scientific prizes and awards, Smithsonian directives, and internal 
policies and procedures through weekly science reports, quarterly 
town hall meetings, and SAO-wide electronic messages, as 
necessary 

• Encourage innovation by aggressively pursuing financial resources 
for internal research and development, and allocating these 
resources through a competitive, peer-reviewed process 

• Increase recruitment of applicants in under-represented categories 
to increase the size of candidate pools from applicants in those 
categories. Increased recruitment efforts will help SAO reach its 
goal of hiring qualified women, minorities, and individuals with 
disabilities 

• Continue SAO's policy, to the maximum extent practicable, of 
purchasing from small or disadvantaged businesses, veteran- 
owned, service-disabled businesses, Historically Underutilized 
Business (HUB) Zone small businesses, and women-owned small 
businesses 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds come primarily 
from overhead charged on grants and contracts. SAO uses these funds to 
support administrative functions approved in the Indirect Cost Budget 
submitted to the Defense Contract Audit Agency and the Office of Naval 
Research, as required by OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Nonprofit 
Organizations. Donor/sponsor-designated funds come primarily from 
restricted gifts from individuals, foundations, and corporations, which are 
earmarked for particular purposes; restricted endowment funds; and non- 
governmental grants and contracts. Government grants and contracts come 
from Government agencies for research in areas of SAO's expertise. SAO 
often conducts this research in cooperation with both governmental and 
academic institutions in the United States and abroad. 



146 



MUSEUM CONSERVATION INSTITUTE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


19 


3,167 





36 





195 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


24 


2,983 





12 





32 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


24 


3,047 





12 















STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


1 


88 


1 


89 





1 


Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


1 


110 


1 


113 





3 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


9 


1,149 


7 


1,067 


-2 


-82 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


8 


903 


10 


1,028 


2 


125 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


4 


633 


4 


648 





15 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


1 


100 


1 


102 





2 


Total 


24 


2,983 


24 


3,047 





64 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian's Museum Conservation Institute (MCI) is the center 
for multi-disciplinary technical research and conservation for all Smithsonian 
museums, collections, and research centers. MCI combines knowledge of 
materials and the history of technology with state-of-the-art instrumentation 



147 



and scientific techniques to conduct in-depth studies of artistic, 
anthropological, and historic objects. These studies aim to elucidate the 
provenance, composition, and cultural context of Smithsonian collections, 
and to improve Smithsonian conservation and collection storage capabilities. 
In addition, MCI provides specialized knowledge of natural history and Native 
American ethnographic collections in assessing and remediating collections 
hazards, including pesticide contamination. 

MCI is the only Smithsonian resource for technical studies and 
analyses for most of the Smithsonian's collections. These services are 
available to Smithsonian units at no charge. MCI has unique analytical 
capabilities and collections knowledge, as shown by requests for 
consultations from within the Smithsonian, from Smithsonian affiliates, and 
outside organizations, such as the White House, U.S. House of 
Representatives, Defense Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Secret Service, 
World Monuments Fund, and other federal, museum, and academic 
organizations. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $64,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, MCI, in 
collaboration with Smithsonian museums and affiliates, will offer public 
programs to present the results of MCI research, heighten awareness of the 
problems of preserving cultural heritage, and gain information about the 
nature and scope of problems that our constituencies encounter. In 
particular, MCI will develop new programming for the public, based on the 
content of the best-selling book Saving Stuff coauthored by an MCI senior 
conservator. MCl's audiences are increasingly concerned with the 
preservation of family heirlooms and other artistic and historic collections. 
MCI will partner with Smithsonian museums and affiliates to offer media 
events, printed and Internet materials, presentations, workshops, and 
demonstrations to reach new audiences, especially those that will be 
targeted by the Institution's newest museums. 

In addition, MCI will continue to promote career development for 
Smithsonian conservators and other collections care providers by offering 
colloquia, symposia, and workshops, as well as distance-learning 
opportunities. The Institute's technical information office will continue 
serving the museum community, the cultural heritage management 
community, museum studies students, and the public. The technical 
information office answers direct inquiries and distributes general guidelines 



148 



in printed and electronic formats, handling more than 1,500 information 
requests annually. MCl's website will be maintained and updated to increase 
the impact of the Institute's research and outreach programs. 

The Institute will support the efforts of Smithsonian museums and 
research centers in their efforts to care for the national collections and 
disseminate that information to the larger museum community and the 
public. MCI will pursue collaborative conservation treatment projects with 
other Smithsonian units to meet these ends, especially by providing 
conservation guidance and art history technical consultations to the art and 
history museums on their more challenging and unique objects. Through 
continuing communication and interaction with the Smithsonian museum 
conservators, special training needs and research projects will be identified 
and research and symposia will be developed to address the most urgent 
collection preservation needs, such as museum environments (involving light, 
temperature, and humidity) and collections storage. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, MCI will provide 
increased technical and research assistance to the science units, and art 
history technical studies and analyses to the art and history museums. MCI 
will facilitate and support collaborative research projects on modern museum 
and collection materials such as plastics, biodeterioration, and historical and 
archaeological technologies. MCI will continue its study of the assessment 
and remediation of collection hazards. In particular, MCI will provide 
specialized knowledge and analytical capabilities to natural history and Native 
American ethnographic collections in assessing and remediating pesticide 
contamination. In addition, MCI will use its website, publications, hosted 
symposia, presentations, invited seminars, and lectures to disseminate the 
results of its long-term basic materials research program. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, MCI will 
use its strategic plan to guide allocation of its budgetary and human 
resources, and to secure additional financial resources for its high-priority 
programs. Resource allocations will be tracked against performance metrics 
in each of the strategic areas, and against the needs and strategic goals of 
the Smithsonian's museums and research centers. MCI will encourage 
appropriate staff to participate in budget-performance integration, succession 
management, and leadership development programs. 



149 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (1 FTE and 
$89,000) 

• Offer six presentations, programs, or supporting materials in 
partnership with Smithsonian museums and affiliates, which are 
directed toward general audiences to advance their knowledge of 
and interest in collections care and conservation 

• Host three internships/fellowships to advance the knowledge and 
skills of conservation and science graduate and postdoctoral 
students 

• Offer nine or more training seminars, workshops, or lectures to 
advance the knowledge and skills of professionals in the museum 
community 

Provide reference services and information to the public (1 FTE and 
$113,000) 

• Increase the number of webpage hits by 5 percent by updating and 
adding new information to the MCI website to increase the 
guidelines and other information readily available to general 
audiences 

• Respond to more than 500 inquiries from Smithsonian staff and the 
public 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (7 FTEs and $1,067,000) 

• Respond to requests for conservation treatment assistance and 
consultations from 10 units within the Smithsonian 

• Answer 80 requests for technical studies, conservation treatment 
assistance, and consultations from other Smithsonian units 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery (10 FTEs and $1 ,028,000) 

• Enable 100 percent of research scientists to disseminate research 
results through peer-reviewed papers, invited chapters, or full- 
length proceedings 

• Initiate new projects in the technical studies of objects from 
Smithsonian museums and collections 

• Develop research programs in response to high-priority issues in the 
care of Smithsonian collections 

• Provide more than 1 ,000 analyses/year for other Smithsonian units 



150 



Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (4 FTEs and $648,000) 

• Focus conservation and science research on MCl's strategic plan, 
and link to Institution-wide scientific planning processes 

• Maintain an excellent working relationship with MCI stakeholders, 
including Smithsonian museums and research centers, by providing 
briefings at least annually 

• Encourage innovation by annually securing financial resources for 
internal research and development, and allocating these resources 
through a merit-based process 

• Plan for budget-performance integration, succession management, 
and leadership development, and train staff accordingly 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (1 FTE and $102,000) 

• Enable staff responsible for financial, budget, procurement, and 
human resources (HR) transactions to keep up to date and respond 
to new policies, procedures, and ERP modules. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - Annually, MCI receives non 
appropriated resources from gifts and endowments, grants and contracts, 
discretionary income, and business ventures. These sources provide, on 
average, $50,000 for specific programs and projects in research, education, 
and outreach designated by the donor/sponsor and $15,000 for general 
activities at the discretion of the director. In FY 2007, MCI was awarded 
more than $70,000 in non-government grants for sponsor-designated 
research and training of Conservation and Conservation Science Fellows, 
which will be spent in FY 2008. In FY 2008, MCI will receive $25,000 
through a contract to support costs associated with an exhibit traveling to a 
Smithsonian Affiliate, and almost $20,000 in a designated gift for purchase 
of small equipment. Accrued unit discretionary funds of an estimated 
$40,000 will support publication of outreach materials, including a major 
illustrated book titled Zinc Sculpture in America: 1 850-1950 to be published 
by the University of Delaware Press, and a small amount of expenses 
associated with outreach. In addition, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has 
awarded MCI a challenge grant of $1.75 million. The Smithsonian Institution 
agreed to match the Mellon grant by raising $3.25 million in additional funds 
within four years to establish a restricted endowment of $5 million. The 
funds released by the endowment income will remain in the MCI budget for 
strengthening conservation science research. 



151 



SMITHSONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


30 


3,154 


1 


85 


7 


728 


53 


5,778 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


34 


3,376 


2 


150 


4 


635 


51 


6,000 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


34 


3,461 


2 


160 


4 


635 


51 


6,000 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


1 


97 


1 


99 





2 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


26 


2,679 


26 


2,751 





65 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


4 


412 


4 


423 





10 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


3 


188 


3 


188 





8 


Total 


34 


3.376 


34 


3,461 





85 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) is a leader in 
research on land and water ecosystems in the coastal zone. SERC's innovative 
research and unique setting advance basic environmental science in the zone 
where most of the world's population lives, and provides society with the 
knowledge to solve the environmental challenges of the 21st century. 



152 



To achieve the Institution's goal of Increased Public Engagement, 
SERC's public education and outreach program interprets and presents SERC's 
scientific research to diverse public audiences, which include schoolchildren 
and science teachers, students, and visiting scientists developing professional 
careers in the environmental sciences, and the general public. 

To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, SERC uses its unique 
site on the shore of Chesapeake Bay and other sites, including the 
Smithsonian Marine Science Network, to investigate the ecological 
interconnections of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components of 
complex landscapes, with comparative studies on regional, continental, and 
global scales. 

To accomplish the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, SERC will 
update management systems and functions, advance construction of its long- 
term Facilities Master Plan through completion of its privately funded Visitors' 
Housing complex, and ensure the safety and protection of staff, Fellows, 
volunteers, and visitors. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $85,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, SERC has used its 
website to provide more information to the public about environmental issues 
in general and SERC's research and education programs in particular. On-site 
education will focus on serving approximately 15,000 students and members 
of the general public, with a focus on increasing minority participation. SERC 
will continue to expand its successful distance-learning programs to improve 
access for traditionally underserved markets. In addition, SERC will^continue 
the Student Training in Aquatic Research (STAR) academy for high-school 
students. 

SERC has strengthened its public outreach programs and was recently 
named a member of the National Park Service's Chesapeake Gateways 
Network. In addition to providing a lecture series, workshops, and expert 
consultation for the public, teachers, natural resources managers, and public 
officials, SERC is also now open to the general public. 

To train the next generation of environmental scientists and managers, 
SERC conducts a nationally recognized professional training program for 
university interns, graduate students, postdoctoral Fellows, and visiting 



153 



scientists, with a particular emphasis on developing careers of under- 
represented minorities. 

To address the goal of Strengthened Research, SERC will use its 
2,650-acre site on the Chesapeake Bay, where its scientists investigate the 
interconnections of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components of 
complex landscapes. SERC develops innovative approaches and 
instrumentation to measure environmental changes at four ecological levels 
(i.e., global change, landscape ecology, ecology of coastal ecosystems, and 
population and community ecology), and has developed unique, long-term, and 
experimental data sets on environmental change. SERC also participates in 
developing the Smithsonian's Marine Science Network of sites along the 
western Atlantic Ocean for comparative coastal studies, and in using the 
Smithsonian's long-term field stations to assess ecological patterns and 
processes. During its 43-year history, SERC has built a reputation for world- 
class research, producing many publications that are rich in data and multi- 
disciplinary and integrative in analysis. 

By building on existing strengths and special programs, SERC seeks to 
enhance its successful research on the following topics: land-sea linkages of 
ecosystems; landscape ecology of coastal watersheds; estuarine ecology; 
invasive species (especially in coastal ecosystems); global change impacts on 
biotic and chemical interactions; biocomplexity of structure and processes in 
key ecosystems; and community and population ecology. During the next five 
years, SERC research on coastal marine ecology will focus on four key, inter- 
related areas: the structure and dynamics of marine food webs; the integrity 
and biodiversity of crucial marine ecosystems; linkages of ecosystems at the 
land-sea interface; and the ecological regulation of marine biodiversity. SERC 
seeks to expand its expertise in the ecology of invasive species, and how they 
affect coastal ecosystems. To implement these goals, SERC will link its 
research with national and international research networks and enhance the 
Marine Science Network. SERC is also developing scientific and technological 
capabilities in analytical chemistry, remote sensing, and instrumentation in 
coastal watersheds and connected ecosystems. 

To address the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, SERC has 
updated its strategic plan and linked it to the Smithsonian Science Strategic 
Plan. SERC is improving its management of research by developing better 
management tools for its overhead activities, and ensuring tighter 
management controls and increased oversight of sensitive information for its 
employees, volunteers, and others. In addition, SERC will ensure the safety 
and protection of volunteers, staff, and visitors by sustaining its excellent 
program of supervised inspections and staff involvement. 



154 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (1 FTE and $99,000) 

• Evaluate and enhance, as appropriate, the quality of on-site 
environmental education programs offered to schoolchildren, 
teachers, natural resources managers, and the general public, to 
communicate current research findings and field methods used by 
Smithsonian scientists 

• Develop and implement training workshops for parents and 
professional educators, which support state and national science 
learning objectives in the environmental sciences 

• Conduct worldwide videoconferences interpreting SERC's 
environmental research for students, teachers, and the general 
public in an effort to reach larger and more diverse audiences 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin 
and evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, 
and human culture (26 FTEs and $2,751,000) 

Theme: Discovering and Understanding Life's Diversity 

• Increase knowledge of human impacts on coastal ecosystems and 
ecological change in land-sea interactions by developing SERC's 
unique long-term and experimental studies, field sampling, 
laboratory analyses, and data records in nine areas: species 
composition and population dynamics; estuarine water quality; 
ecosystem alteration and restoration; flow of nutrients; effects of 
toxic trace elements; invasive species; atmospheric increase in 
CO2; ultraviolet radiation; and the biocomplexity of mangrove forest 
ecosystems 

• Enhance environmental research by sustaining awards of 
competitive external grants and contracts from a diverse array of at 
least 10 agencies and other sources, to study land-sea linkages, 
landscape ecology, invasive species, global change, biocomplexity, 
community and population ecology, transport of toxic trace 
elements and nutrients, and coastal marine and estuarine ecology 

• Disseminate results of research on human impacts on coastal 
ecosystems and ecological change by publishing articles in peer- 
reviewed journals and books based on SERC's original 
environmental research 

• Continue to link and coordinate SERC research, through active 
participation in the Smithsonian Marine Science Network, with 
national and international research networks (such as the National 
Association of Marine Laboratories, National Ecological Observation 



155 



Network, and the Association of Ecosystem Research Centers), and 
with Government agencies such as the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA) 

• Provide advice and counsel to state legislatures and Congress on 
environmental issues within SERC's areas of expertise 

• Train the next generation of ecologists, environmental scientists, 
and natural resource managers by sustaining SERC's high-quality 
professional training program, and by awarding undergraduate 
internships, supporting graduate students, and postdoctoral 
scientists, with an emphasis on achieving a target goal of 25 
percent participation from under-represented minorities 

• Manage long-term, spatial data sets on the environment to evaluate 
the extent of ecological change 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (4 FTEs and $423,000) 

• Implement SERC's strategic plan, which is formally linked to the 
Smithsonian Science Strategic Plan and link the strategic plan to 
SERC's Master Plan (completed early in FY 2008) 

• Develop better tracking systems for external grants and contracts 
to improve their efficiency and effectiveness 

• Develop standards and strategies to implement SERC's goal of 
improved compliance with the Smithsonian Institution Performance 
Management System 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (3 FTEs and $188,000) 

• Ensure appropriate staff training on future modules of the 
Institution's Enterprise Resource Planning system 

• Improve coordination with the Office of Facilities Engineering and 
Operations' support units such as facilities management, security, 
and safety offices to meet SERC's programmatic goals 

• Strengthen conformity with Smithsonian Institution procedures 
guiding contracting, procurement, and the Supplier Diversity 
Program 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds provide core 
administrative support for SERC as well as support for fundraising and 
intern/fellowship programs. Donor/sponsor-designated funds provide critical 
operating support related to specific programs and projects in research, public 
education, and professional training. The bulk of SERC's scientific research 
program of more than $6 million is supported by Government grants and 
contracts. 



156 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


244 


12,482 


17 


950 


39 


4,901 


18 


1,134 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


248 


12,405 


13 


879 


33 


5,599 


14 


916 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


248 


12,677 


13 


880 


33 


5,950 


12 


520 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


7 


301 


7 


308 





7 


Provide reference services and information 


3 


85 


3 


87 





2 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


109 


7,111 


109 


7,267 





156 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range 
revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities 


4 


383 


4 


391 





8 


Implement an aggressive and professional 
maintenance program 


21 


986 


21 


1,008 





22 


Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient 
operation of Smithsonian facilities 


22 


529 


22 


541 





12 


Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers 


26 


647 


26 


661 





14 


Provide a safe and healthy environment 


2 


117 


2 


120 





3 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information 
technology systems and infrastructure 


6 


309 


6 


316 





7 



157 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is 
customer centered and results oriented 


12 


421 


12 


430 





9 


Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is 
efficient, collaborative, committed, 
innovative, and diverse 


8 


452 


8 


462 





10 


Modernize the Institution's financial 
management and accounting operations 


13 


567 


13 


579 





12 


Enhance the reputation of the 
Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with 
federal, state, and local governments 


4 


225 


4 


230 





5 


Modernize and streamline the Institution's 
acquisitions management operations 


11 


272 


11 


277 





5 


Total 


248 


12,405 


248 


12,677 





272 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) is the principal U.S. 
organization dedicated to advancing fundamental scientific discovery and 
understanding of biological diversity in the tropics and its contribution to 
human welfare. STRI plays a critical role for the U.S. Government and the 
Smithsonian by maintaining world-class research facilities in Panama where last 
year more than 1 ,000 resident and visiting scientists representing 44 states in 
the United States and 40 countries around the world accessed diverse tropical 
environments, including rain forest and coral reef ecosystems. STRI serves as 
official custodian for the Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM) in Panama 
under the terms of the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife 
Preservation in the Western Hemisphere, ratified by the U.S. Senate in April 
1941. The BCNM is the only mainland tropical reserve under U.S. stewardship. 

The long-term research conducted by STRI scientists and collaborators is 
a critical contribution to the Smithsonian Institution's strategic plan "Science 
Matters" set forth in 2005. The relevance, quality, and performance of STRI 
scientists is top tier, as evaluated biannually by a Visiting Committee of outside 
experts. In 2006, the Visiting Committee used National Research Council 
criteria to measure the productivity and impact of STRI science compared to 
142 of the best university research departments in the United States; STRI 
scientists ranked first in all measures of scientific relevance (e.g., publication 
citations), quality (e.g., scientific honors), and productivity (e.g., publication 
numbers). In addition, the number of young scientists who choose STRI as the 
base for their graduate and postgraduate research training provides an annual 
measure of the relevance and quality of STRI science to the future of tropical 
biology and policy. FY 2007 marked the fifth year in a row that the number of 



158 



visiting scientists choosing to base their research at STRI has increased, in 
recent years by as much as 20 percent from the previous year. 

As part of its core mission, STRI will begin to transform its network of 
tropical forest plots into a system of Smithsonian Institution Global Earth 
Observatories (SIGEO) to monitor the impact of climate change on carbon 
budgets, nutrient cycling, forest dynamics, and biodiversity in tropical and 
temperate forests, and to provide these objective and rigorous scientific data 
quickly via the World Wide Web to scientists, policy makers, and people 
around the world who need to make informed decisions. SIGEO will extend a 
well-established network of 20 research plots in 1 5 countries named the 
Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS), which is administered by STRI. STRI 
established the first CTFS/SIGEO plot in 1980 and since that time directs 7 
FTEs and $608,000 per year in SI federal funds and more than $38 million 
from other federal and private sources toward the global network of Earth 
observatories. Each plot is managed in each country by one or more partner 
institutions and the SIGEO network involves hundreds of scientists from around 
the world. 

Although tremendous advances in tropical forest research have resulted 
from more than 27 years of research, SIGEO can make an even larger 
contribution through monitoring the effects of anthropogenic increases in 
atmospheric CO2 and general air pollution on tree growth and related biodiversity 
measures at local, regional, and global scales; extend its studies to the 
temperate zone; and, in addition to continuing its long-term monitoring of trees, 
begin standardized global censuses of key organismal indicators of environmental 
health. Efforts funded with private support will link climate change expertise 
across Smithsonian science units, such as the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center (SERC) and STRI, and, as funding becomes available, will also 
include the National Zoological Park's (NZP) Conservation and Research Center 
(CRC), the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), National Museum of Natural 
History (NMNH), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in a 
concerted effort to dramatically improve our understanding of the environment. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $272,000 for 
mandatory pay increases for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

Smithsonian science aims to initiate the transformation of the STRI/CTFS 
network of tropical forest plots into a system of SI Global Earth Observatories 
(SIGEO) through a private-public partnership that will require, in the long term, 
an infusion of federal support to provide necessary continuity. 



159 



Future federal investment will be required to ensure that SIGEO can 
recruit the number and caliber of scientists required to provide long-term, 
reliable oversight of the network and data quality; make fundamental 
observations regarding the nature of forest change over time; and develop a 
predictive science capable of informing policy makers of the potential 
consequences for forests of global climate change and biodiversity loss. The 
need for these staff positions results from the success of the CTFS network, 
which has grown in global representation and in the sheer quantity of data 
collected, maintained, distributed, analyzed, and interpreted. Some of the new 
scientists will be responsible for the long-term quality, reliability, and 
consistency of the data across the different forest plots in the network. Other 
scientists will be responsible for maintaining the distributed network database 
and for developing the database tools, analytical approaches, and the 
predictive environmental science required to take full advantage of the SIGEO. 

It is worth noting that the network is extremely well used by 
independent, university-associated faculty and network partners; thus, the 
SIGEO leverages huge intellectual horsepower. More than 200 scientists have 
published research from the CTFS data sets, attesting to the broad usability 
and benefits of the network. One measure of this effective leveraging is the 
large number of National Science Foundation (NSF) funded research projects 
based within the network. Also, Harvard and Yale universities have pledged $8 
million, in addition to $10 million pledged from a single private donor, to 
support the network for the next five years, maintain partnerships with SIGEO, 
and strengthen the network's basic and social research programs. Initially, 
SIGEO will establish a Global Carbon Research Program to provide in situ 
measures of above- and below-ground carbon and its change over time in 
response to rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO2). A recent publication by 
SIGEO scientists, using 25 years worth of data from two forest plots (Barro 
Colorado Island, Panama and Pasoh, Malaysia), has shown that, despite 
increased atmospheric carbon fertilization, the growth rates of tropical forest 
trees have decreased, perhaps in response to global warming. Objective long- 
term data from a global network of forest plots provide critical empirical data 
for modeling carbon dynamics in the future, and permit direct measurement of 
the effectiveness of efforts to reduce carbon emissions. 

In FY 2009, SIGEO will expand the CTFS program to the temperate 
zone. Tropical and temperate forests are believed to behave differently with 
regard to carbon, owing to differences in seasonality and other climate factors. 
Currently, no temperate-zone forest plots follow the same methodology as the 
tropical plots but the SIGEO initiative will take advantage of long-term forest 
plot-associated research at SERC, located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed in 
Maryland, to quickly establish a series of large-scale temperate plots that will 
permit direct comparison to the forests in the tropical plot network. 



160 



Partnerships in temperate China and Europe are being developed to help 
expand temperate-tropical and temperate-temperate comparisons to a global 
scale. The Hong Kong Shanghai Bank (HSBC), a major donor, has recently 
formed a climate partnership with the Smithsonian and the environmental 
organization Earthwatch Institute to establish a regional training center on 
climate change at SERC. Furthermore, the National Zoo's Conservation and 
Research Center is currently a candidate as one of the National Ecological 
Observatory Network (NEON) sites, which provides a tremendous opportunity 
for cross-fertilization and synergy between SIGEO and NEON, which may lead 
to the establishment of forest plots at other NEON sites. 

SIGEO will directly support the 2007 Administration Research and 
Development Environment priority to improve the nation's "ability to observe, 
model, assess, and adapt to impacts of climate change and to assure the 
availability of critical long-term climate data." The expanded methodology and 
objectives of SIGEO will ensure even better observation, data, and models in 
the future. 

In the environmental sciences, the CTFS stands as one of the premier 
U.S. -led international partnerships, and SIGEO aims to integrate the SI network 
of forest dynamics plots with the U.S. Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) 
and toward implementation of an international Global Earth Observation 
System of Systems (GEOSS) to further advance the progress of science across 
borders. SIGEO contributes to fulfilling the strategic plan of the U.S. Climate 
Change Science Program (CCSP) and addressing its proposed FY 2009 priority 
of reducing scientific uncertainty about potential effects of climate change on 
ecosystems. The Smithsonian collaborates with the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA) in the context of Global Earth Observatories. SIGEO promotes large- 
scale environmental monitoring and maintains enormous banks of data and 
metadata, which help galvanize advanced data networks and sophisticated 
analyses, extending from single forest plots to outer space. 



161 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (7 FTEs and $308,000) 

• Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of science through high-quality public programs at four 
STRI sites, and with tools based on the Institute's research, such as 
exhibits in Panama's Biodiversity Museum set to open in 2009 

• Continue to provide in situ research training opportunities by 
increasing the number of postdoctoral fellowships and internships 

Provide reference services and information to the public (3 FTEs and 
$87,000) 

• Increase the amount of the scientific data available on the World 
Wide Web to make research results accessible to scientists, policy 
makers and the public 

• Provide reference services and information derived from ongoing 
research to the public through the STRI library 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on biological diversity and 
human culture (109 FTEs and $7,267,000) 

• Begin to transform the CTFS network monitoring forest dynamics at 
20 sites in 1 5 nations into the system of SIGEO to develop a 
predictive science of global change and biodiversity 

• Initiate experiments to quantify the ecosystem services provided by 
tropical forests (e.g., quality and quantity of water and carbon) in the 
Panama Canal watershed 

• Use DNA-based studies to increase understanding of the ecology and 
evolution of forests with high biodiversity and their functional 
responses to climate change 

• Begin to develop predictive models for the roles of temperate and 
tropical forests in the global carbon cycle and their likely impact on 
climate change 

• Publish at least 250 books and scientific papers in peer-reviewed 
journals to share research results with the scientific community 
worldwide on the origins, maintenance, and loss of tropical 
biodiversity 

• Facilitate tropical research for at least 900 visiting scientists and 
students working in STRI facilities, including projects funded by the 
NSF and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 

• Continue to strengthen the SI Marine Science Network collaborative 
projects on marine environments, such as on coral reefs and 
mangroves in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, 



162 



to better understand their diversity, vulnerability, and conservation 
opportunities 

• Build inter-unit, inter-agency, and international coalitions through 
collaborative projects, meetings, and workshops conducted at STRI 
facilities 

• Take advantage of Panama Canal expansion work to obtain fossils 
that can allow STRI to reconstruct the diversity of plants and animals 
before, during, and after the rising of the Central American isthmus 

• Continue archaeological research aimed at revealing the importance 
of prehistoric tropical societies in New World cultural development 

• Develop improved understanding of human occupation in neotropical 
forests, from the first colonization 1 5,000 to 1 1 ,000 years ago 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities (4 FTEs and $391,000) 

• Continue to execute plans to revitalize Gamboa facilities as an 
integrated educational and research center that meets current safety 
and laboratory standards 

Implement an aggressive and professional maintenance program 
(21 FTEs and $1,008,000) 

• Advance structural assessment of STRI facilities to ensure their 
continued safe and effective use for tropical research and education 

Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities (22 FTEs and $541,000) 

• Conduct regular monitoring of all facilities, including buildings, 
vessels, vehicles, and docks, to ensure their safety and operational 
capacity to conduct ongoing research 

Provide world-class protection for Smithsonian facilities, staff, visitors, 
and volunteers (26 FTEs and $661,000) 

• Provide additional surveillance of contractors participating in the 
Panama Canal expansion, from the perspective of safety, security, 
and logistics, to ensure continued effective operations at the Barro 
Colorado Nature Monument 

Provide a safe and healthy environment (2 FTEs and $ 120,000) 

• Bring STRI facilities into compliance with recognized safety standards 
to ensure safety and protection of staff, visitors, volunteers, 
collections, infrastructure, and equipment 

Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (6 FTEs and $316,000) 

• Increase information-sharing within the Institute via improved 
connectivity between STRI facilities through the Local Area Network 
(LAN) system 



163 



Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (12 FTEs and $430,000) 

• Increase internal customer satisfaction (i.e., STRI staff and visitors) 
by streamlining the acquisitions process and adopting the Enterprise 
Resource Planning (ERP) system for financial, budget, procurement, 
and human resources management 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (8 FTEs and $462,000) 

• Update the STRI local salary scale to attract and retain the best 
bilingual employees in a highly competitive market due to the 
improving local economic situation (e.g., growth of tourism and 
mega-projects) 

Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (13 FTEs and $579,000) 

• Advance modernization of financial management and accounting 
operations by continuing training and development of staff 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good relations 
with the news media and with federal, state, and local governments 
(4 FTEs and $230,000) 

• Conduct targeted seminars and visits to research sites for journalists 
and policy makers to keep them informed about relevant research 
discoveries 

Modernize and streamline the Institution's acquisitions management 
operations (11 FTEs and $277,000) 

• Review current acquisition practices for cost effectiveness and client 
satisfaction, and propose alternatives adhering to established policies 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES -- General trust funds support salaries for 
a small percentage of STRI employees involved in research, public outreach, 
and fund raising. Donor/sponsor-designated funds support specific programs 
and projects to investigate key indicators of global environmental health. 
Donor-designated support includes an endowed staff position in tropical 
paleoecology that studies past climates and environments in the tropics, 
postdoctoral positions that study the relationship between brain size and 
behavioral complexity, and postdoctoral fellowships in tropical marine 
biology, using STRI's Bocas del Toro field station. 

Government grants and contracts support programs such as the Panama 
International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), funded by the NIH and 
administered by STRI, which conducts innovative biomedical research and 
training, and monitors wildlife that could be carriers of avian influenza and 
other animal-borne diseases. 



164 



OUTREACH 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


60 


9,182 


32 


4,655 


15 


3,974 


3 


519 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


65 


9,539 


34 


4,689 


16 


4,841 


3 


247 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


65 


9,720 


34 


4,513 


16 


4,891 


3 


182 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


11 


1,026 


10 


1,057 


-1 


31 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


42 


4,816 


42 


4,934 





118 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


5 


2,283 


5 


2,300 





17 


Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 





633 





633 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


7 


781 


7 


718 





-63 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse 








1 


78 


1 


78 


Total 


65 


9,539 


65 


9,720 





181 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

Smithsonian Across America is the outreach strategy of the Institution, 
linking its national collections, research, and educational resources with 
Americans from coast to coast. Its aims are to 1) broaden the audiences who 



165 



share in the nation's rich cultural heritage; 2) enhance widespread research- 
based knowledge of science, history, and art; and 3) provide opportunities for 
educators and scholars to further increase and diffuse knowledge. 

In FY 2007, outreach programs served millions of Americans, 
thousands of communities, and hundreds of institutions in all 50 states, 
through loans of objects, traveling exhibitions, and sharing of educational 
resources via publications, lectures and presentations, training programs, and 
websites. Smithsonian outreach programs work in close cooperation with 
Smithsonian museums and research centers, as well as with 1 50 affiliate 
institutions and others across the nation. 

This line item includes the programs that provide the critical mass of 
Smithsonian Across America outreach activity: the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES); Smithsonian Affiliations; the 
Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies (SCEMS); the Office 
of Research Training and Services (ORTS); and the Smithsonian Institution 
Scholarly Press (SISP). The Smithsonian Associates and the National Science 
Resources Center, which receive no direct federal funding, are also part of 
this national outreach effort. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $181,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (40 FTEs and 
$4,643,000) — SITES' success in traveling exhibitions that capture the 
vastness of Smithsonian collections and research reflects the Smithsonian's 
FY 2009 performance plan goal of Increased Public Engagement. More than 
55 different exhibits will feature topics as varied as historic cockpits, the 
Muppets and soil ecology. The exhibitions will travel to hundreds of 
communities, in cities and towns, in all 50 states. 

SITES is a national leader in exhibitions that honor and celebrate the 
cultural heritages of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Pacific Americans, 
Native Americans, and the many other peoples who make up the nation. 
Significant FY 2009 resources will be dedicated to this focus, energizing 
public involvement through such exhibitions as Becoming American: 
Teenagers and the Immigrant Experience; Beyond Baseball: The Legacy of 
Roberto Clemente; Exit Saigon, Enter Little Saigon; Freedom Sisters; Native 
Words, Native Warriors; and Let Your Motto Be Resistance, the premier 
exhibition of the Smithsonian's new Museum of African American History 
and Culture. 



166 



SITES' groundbreaking Museum on Main Street (MoMS) program 
continues to enrich in a tangible way the underserved populations of rural 
America, whose access to national cultural programs is profoundly limited. 
Nowhere is civic engagement with the Smithsonian more visible than when 
small-town USA opens a MoMS exhibit. In FY 2009, Journey Stories, which 
chronicles the myriad lively and sometimes accidental ways immigrants 
settled in America, will open in communities stretching from North Dakota to 
Mississippi. 

SITES could not be true to its mission of sharing the fullness of the 
Smithsonian contributions with people outside of Washington if its 
exhibitions did not showcase the pioneering research of Smithsonian 
scientists. A blockbuster exhibit about soil ecology, Dig It! will begin a 
national tour of major science centers and natural history museums in 
FY 2009, and smaller venues will benefit from a poster set exhibit that 
surveys planet Earth from space. It will be made available through a mass- 
distribution partnership with the United States Geological Survey. 

While Americans may know the Smithsonian from one-time school 
trips or family visits, the presence of the Institution's treasures on their home 
town turf has a deeper resonance. In this way, SITES exhibitions embody the 
positive public impact of the federal dollar. They are a source of immense 
local pride, rallying community spirit and bringing together people from 
diverse ethnic, age and socio-economic groups to celebrate a shared national 
heritage. 

Smithsonian Affiliations (2 FTEs and $291,000) — The mission of 
Smithsonian Affiliations is to build a strong, national network of affiliated 
museums and educational and cultural organizations that will facilitate the 
display of Smithsonian artifacts and expertise to communities across 
America. By working with both emerging and well-established museums of 
diverse sizes, subject areas, audience bases, and scholarly disciplines, 
Smithsonian Affiliations is creating the framework through which visitors 
unable to come to Washington, DC can experience the Smithsonian in their 
own communities. In addition, the Smithsonian is working closely with 
affiliated organizations to increase their audiences, expand their professional 
capabilities, and gain greater recognition in their local communities. 

These strategies have resulted in the display of more than 7,000 
Smithsonian artifacts in Affiliate locations, including items such as historic 
spacecraft, First Ladies' gowns, Civil War arms and uniforms, outdoor 
sculptures, scientifically significant mineral collections, and many more. 
Smithsonian scholars have participated in science literacy, American history, 
and art education programs at Affiliate locations. Professional development 



167 



workshops, internships, and visiting professional residencies have given 
Affiliates the opportunities to increase their knowledge and skills in areas 
such as collections management, exhibition planning, and museum 
administration. The Smithsonian Affiliations' annual conference creates a 
forum for networking, information sharing, and future planning. 

Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies (14 FTEs and 
$1,486,000) — The mission of SCEMS is to increase the Smithsonian's 
impact as an educational organization by leading Institution-wide initiatives, 
creating networks, and offering programming. In FY 2006, the Center 
established a long-term alliance for the Smithsonian with state education 
officials to provide the basis for developing new Smithsonian educational 
resources and ensuring their widespread use. In FY 2009, the Center will 
continue to strengthen this alliance by collaborating with Smithsonian 
teacher-Fellows designated by the state officers and providing professional 
development for state teachers of the year. 

The national outreach importance of the Center's website, 
www.SmithsonianEducation.org has continued to grow. To make this a more 
effective portal to all of the Institution's educational resources, the Center 
has updated, abstracted and indexed all resources identified by the units as 
having relevance to school curricula, and made them easily accessible via a 
search engine. In addition, all of the resources have been correlated to the 
standards of learning in all 50 states, thereby greatly increasing their 
usefulness to teachers. The Center works with all of the units to keep the 
website content current and relevant, and maintains feedback features that 
capture public opinion on the content relevance and quality. In FY 2009, the 
Center will increase the site's content for non-school, informal learning 
contexts. 

To complement its many professional development workshops and 
institutes, in FY 2009 the Center will expand the content of 
SmithsonianSource.org, its professional development and distance-learning 
website for history teachers. 

In FY 2007, the Center implemented a system to standardize and 
aggregate information about educational activities throughout the Institution. 
In FY 2009, the Center will coordinate the project with Sl-wide data 
gathering systems. 

Office of Research Training and Services (5 FTEs and $1,920,000) — 

To meet the goal of Strengthened Research and maintain the Smithsonian's 
level of expertise in the research community, the Institution must continue to 
attract the best scholars. Increasing fellowships stipends to provide awards 



168 



at the level of other prestigious awards — generally $42,000, plus a 
research allowance of $3,000 for postdoctoral fellowships — will enable the 
Smithsonian to stay competitive and attract the best candidates. 

In recent years, many internal funding sources at the Smithsonian have 
been diminished. However, there is a genuine need to rebuild the funding 
available to the Institution's Scholarly Studies Program so that the Smithsonian 
will have the resources necessary to help today's young scientists become the 
next generation's top researchers. In addition, current staff need funds to 
develop new research initiatives, collaborate with other scholars, and establish 
the scope and feasibility of projects. Members of the research community see 
the Smithsonian as a seed bank for research specialties. To maintain this 
position, ORTS, through the Scholarly Studies Program, will need to regain the 
level of funding that was provided in years past. 

External funding is often very competitive, and in some cases, the 
Institution's researchers are not eligible. Awards given through the 
Smithsonian Scholarly Studies Program provide basic funding for new 
research projects, especially when external funding is not available. Although 
these awards help develop research concepts, they are not large enough to 
fund long-term research requiring two to four years to complete. In recent 
years, the Scholarly Studies Program has provided start-up funding for major 
research at the National Zoo, and two of these efforts received additional 
five-year funding from the National Institutes of Health to continue the 
research. New research initiatives include: 

• improving cyropreservation technologies in rare and endangered 
species 

• the study of Earth-like planets around other stars 

• determining the impact of reduced genetic diversity on male 
reproductive function 

Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press (4 FTEs and $1,380,000) - 

Through the Contributions and Studies Series Program, continuously 
published since 1875, SISP publishes research conducted by Smithsonian 
staff. The federal resources will support the production of the first-class 
science results and widened public distribution to libraries, universities, and 
other organizations. The program publishes monographs in several subject 
areas, including anthropology, botany, marine sciences, paleobiology, 
zoology, visual and material culture, and history and technology. 
Furthermore, federal resources will underpin the publishing of scholarly 
books written by Smithsonian staff or books closely related to Smithsonian 
collections. 



169 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (10 FTEs and $1,057,000) 

• Manage the Smithsonian internship program, providing 1,000 
college students with internship placements, training, and 
enrichment opportunities 

• Publish a teachers' magazine based on Smithsonian research 
collections, and distribute it to every elementary and middle school 
in all 50 states (approximately 82,000 schools) 

• Provide professional development for an audience of 3,000 
museum and classroom educators through workshops, special 
events, and learning institutes 

• Maintain www.SmithsonianEducation.org, a central education 
website for teachers, families, and students; http://intern.si.edu, a 
central website for intern applicants and current interns; 
http://museumstudies.si.edu, a resource site for museum 
professionals and museum studies students; and 
www.SmithsonianSource.org, a complex, Institution-wide, multi- 
media website. These websites are expected to reach three million 
visitors 

• Provide quality public programs that have, on average, an 
outstanding rating on a poor-fair-good-outstanding-excellent 
scale 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions and other public programs at 
Smithsonian museums and across the nation (42 FTEs and 
$4,934,000) 

• Arrange tours of at least three exhibitions from the National 
Museum of American History to guarantee public access to national 
collections while the Museum is under renovation 

• Arrange tours of three exhibitions about African American cultural 
history to introduce the public to the richness of the Smithsonian's 
new National Museum of African American History and Culture 

• Arrange tours of four new exhibitions that honor and celebrate the 
cultural heritages of Latinos, Asian Pacific Americans, Native 
Americans, and new immigrant groups in the United States 

• Launch one new exhibit and add 50 small towns to the number of 
locations that participate in MoMS, the SITES program that sends 
Smithsonian exhibits to rural America 

• Launch two new exhibits from the National Air and Space Museum 
to respond to public demand for exhibitions on aviation and space 
subjects 



170 



• Develop tours for two blockbuster exhibits from the National 
Museum of Natural History and the National Zoological Park on the 
subjects of earth science and zoology 

• Increase network of Affiliates to include all 50 states. There are 1 1 
states remaining 

• Coordinate with other Smithsonian units on the expansion of 
services, including artifact loans, traveling exhibitions, cultural and 
educational programs, and professional development opportunities, 
to more than 50 percent of Affiliates 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery (5 FTEs and $2,300,000) 

• Increase stipend levels and research allowances to stay competitive 
in science to attract a new generation of scholars 

• Offer multi-year fellowships in the areas of systematics, 
paleobiology, ecology, and biology research 

• Support scholarly science research 

• Support a robust scholarly publishing program focused on the 
Contributions and Studies Series Program, scholarly books, and 
research conducted by scientists, researchers, and curators in the 
different SI museums and units 

• Publish up to 15 volumes each year in the Contributions and 
Studies Series and between 10 and 13 scholarly books 

• Expand the reach of the Smithsonian Institution's past studies and 
scientific contributions by digitizing and making available on the SI 
Scholarly Press website all legacy volumes of the Contributions and 
Studies Series as well as all forthcoming volumes 

• Support editorial boards that oversee a centrally managed 
competitive proposal process for scholarly publications and books 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities ($633,000) 

• Increase the number of awards and stipend levels offered to 
scholars studying humanities 

• Continue support for scholarly research in the humanities 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (7 FTEs and $718,000) 

• Implement the audience data reporting system to collect education 
data from Smithsonian museums, research centers, and outreach 
offices 

• Convene programs for Smithsonian staff that will foster a learning 
community around education topics 

• Establish an Institution-wide national education outreach strategy 
to reach the nation's schools by working with leadership at the 



171 



U.S. Department of Education and the heads of education in all 50 
states 

• Align Smithsonian educational resources with the standards of 
learning in all 50 states, and make these resources publicly 
available through interactive Web applications 

• Improve management of reporting taxable income for Fellows 

• Ensure that current policies and procedures are appropriate for 
processing fellowship and internship appointments and stipend 
payments 

• Review current human resources policies and procedures to implement 
new changes to the Human Resources Management System (HRMS) 

Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (7 FTE and $78,000) 

• Convene an Institution-wide committee as well as working groups 
to foster collaboration and promote diverse public programming 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds provide support to 
defray the costs of staff salaries and benefits, fund raising, exhibition design 
and production, publications, materials, outside specialists, and contractual 
services. Donor/sponsor-designated funds cover costs related to specific 
projects and programs. 



172 



COMMUNICATIONS 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


23 


2,621 


21 


3,097 





8 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


23 


2,106 


21 


2,907 





8 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


23 


2,161 


21 


2,903 





8 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Ch 


ange 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Provide reference services and information to the 
public 


10 


769 


10 


791 





22 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


1 


51 


1 


51 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


12 


1,286 


12 


1,319 





33 


Total 


23 


2,106 


23 


2,161 





55 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Office of Communications consists of three departments: the 
Office of Public Affairs (OPA), the Visitor Information and Associates' 
Reception Center (VIARC), and the Office of Government Relations. For 
FY 2008, the Smithsonian Photographic Services, previously part of OPA, 
has merged into the Smithsonian Institution Archives. 



173 



OPA coordinates public relations and communications in conjunction 
with museums, research centers, and offices to present a consistent and 
positive image of the Institution. The Office develops programs to advance the 
Institution's objectives and acquaints the public with research, exhibitions, 
public programs, and other Smithsonian activities by working with the news 
media and issuing publications for staff and the public. OPA extends the 
Institution's communication message to the Web by overseeing content on the 
central and press room websites. OPA also works with units throughout the 
Institution to establish and maintain guidelines and standards. 

VIARC seeks to broaden the public's knowledge, appreciation, and 
enjoyment of the Smithsonian and to facilitate the goal of Increased Public 
Engagement by promoting participation in the Institution's programs and 
activities. VIARC also advances the goal of Strengthened Research by 
providing behind-the-scenes volunteers who assist staff in performing their 
research. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $55,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, OPA directs its 
resources to nationwide mass-media publicity and to expanding relationships 
with minority communities through targeted radio and print advertising. OPA 
publishes the Smithsonian annual report, visitors' brochures, and Inside 
Smithsonian Research, a newsletter devoted to scientific research. It also 
publishes The Torch, a monthly newspaper, and Blue Bulletin, a biweekly 
newsletter, to keep employees informed about Smithsonian staff projects 
and events at the Institution. OPA has primary responsibility for extending 
the Institution's communications message to the Web by overseeing content 
on the central and press room websites, and by working with units 
throughout the Institution to establish and maintain guidelines and standards. 

VIARC advances the goal of Increased Public Engagement by 
disseminating information about public programs, exhibitions, events, and 
collections. VIARC has content responsibility for four segments of the 
Smithsonian website: Visitor Information, Events, Exhibits, and Encyclopedia 
Smithsonian. In addition, VIARC provides oversight and scheduling of 
information and end-panel placement for about 20 information signs on and 
near the National Mall; seven-day, year-round operation of the Smithsonian 
Information Center; recruitment, training, scheduling, and seven-day 
supervision of volunteer and staff information specialists at 1 5 museum 
information desks; operation of public inquiry mail and telephone information 



174 



services, including the main Smithsonian telephone number; operation and 
oversight of the Castle Docent Program; and outreach to the local, national, 
and international tour and travel industries. VIARC oversees approximately 
2,000 volunteers throughout the Smithsonian, representing one-third of the 
Smithsonian volunteer corps. 

VIARC advances the goal of Strengthened Research through the 
"Behind-the-Scenes" volunteer program, which assists staff in performing 
their research. Volunteer assignments range from clerical tasks to highly 
complex research, conservation, and technical work. 

To achieve Enhanced Management Excellence, OPA responds to all 
media inquiries in a timely manner with accurate, concise information, and 
initiates story ideas to the media about Smithsonian exhibitions, research, 
and programs. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Provide reference services and information to the public (10 FTEs and 
$791,000) 

• Develop and maintain an integrated plan for communications, 
advertising, and marketing for the Institution to reach both general 
and target audiences 

• Continue the Institution's targeted outreach campaign to 
traditionally underserved audiences, through radio stations (in 
English and Spanish), weekly newspapers, newsletters, and posters 

• Recruit approximately 125 new volunteers to address normal 
volunteer attrition at the units' Visitor Information desks, and to 
accommodate the 2008 scheduled re-opening of the National 
Museum of American History 

• Continue to provide accurate and timely information about 
Smithsonian events, activities, and exhibitions through 1 5 museum 
information desks and the Telephone Information Services Program 
in the Castle 

• Update the visitor information database at least once daily 

• Maintain and update VIARC's content on the Smithsonian website 
to ensure the timeliness and accuracy of information 



175 



Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin 
and evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, 
and human culture (1 FTE and $51,000) 

• Recruit approximately 300 Behind-the-Scenes volunteers in 

FY 2008 to assist research programs throughout the Institution by 
matching skills, knowledge, interests, and availability with project 
requirements 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (12 FTEs and $1,319,000) 

• Support the Board of Regents' Governance and Nominating 
Committee 

• Respond to all media inquiries in a timely manner with accurate, 
concise information, generally within 24 hours 

• Initiate positive stories to various media, including stories about 
exhibitions, research, facilities, new acquisitions, and staff 

• Organize events specifically for journalists 

• Publish a monthly employee newspaper, The Torch, and the 
biweekly online staff newsletter, Blue Bulletin 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits of personnel and other related costs. In addition, these funds 
provide general support for information dissemination, outreach, publications, 
and general operations. 



176 



INSTITUTION-WIDE PROGRAMS 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


1 


7,251 




















FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 





6,839 




















FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 





7.839 





















STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 





1,121 





1,121 








Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 





1,878 





2,878 





1,000 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 





1,614 





1,614 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 





2,226 





2,226 








Total 





6,839 





7,839 





1,000 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

Since 1993, Congress has approved the creation of the following four 
Institution-wide funding programs: 



• Research Equipment Pool 

• Latino Initiatives Pool 

• Collections Care and Preservation Fund 

• Information Resources Management Pool 

177 



In 1993, Congress approved the Smithsonian's reallocation of funds to 
create two Institution-wide funding programs: the Research Equipment Pool to 
support the units' needs for state-of-the-art research equipment, and the 
Information Resources Management (IRM) Pool to systematically address 
information technology (IT) needs throughout the Institution. In FY 1995, the 
Institution first received funds to support the development of a third 
Institution-wide program, this one for Latino initiatives, including research, 
exhibitions, and educational programming. In FY 1998, Congress approved a 
$960,000 increase to the IRM Pool specifically dedicated to collections 
information systems (CIS) needs. The FY 2006 appropriation included an 
increase of $1 million to establish another Institution-wide program — the 
Collections Care and Preservation Fund (CCPF). The CCPF provides resources 
for the highest priority collections management needs throughout the 
Institution to improve the overall stewardship of Smithsonian collections. Like 
the other pools, CCPF resources are distributed annually to Smithsonian units 
on a competitive basis. 

The FY 2009 budget request for Institution-wide programs includes an 
increase of $1,000,000 for the Collections Care and Preservation Fund. 

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT - COLLECTIONS CARE INITIATIVE 

Smithsonian collections are a national and global resource accessed 
each year by millions of visitors and researchers who use traditional methods 
and cutting-edge technologies to explore subjects from aeronautics to zoology. 
Through its collections, the Smithsonian presents the astonishing record of 
American and international artistic, historical, cultural, and scientific 
achievement, with a scope and depth that no other institution in the world can 
match. Collections are acquired from tropical rainforests, archaeological sites, 
everyday life, the depths of the oceans, and extraterrestrially. Whatever the 
source, the objects and specimens are preserved and maintained for public 
exhibition, education, and study. 

Currently, Smithsonian museum collections total 137.1 million objects 
and specimens. In addition, the holdings of the Smithsonian include 1 .5 million 
library volumes, including rare books, and 89,000 cubic feet of archives. Among 
the vast collections are irreplaceable national icons, examples of everyday life, 
and scientific material vital to the study of the world's scientific and cultural 
heritage. The scope is staggering: from a magnificent collection of ancient 
Chinese bronzes to the Star-Spangled Banner; from a 3.5-billion-year-old fossil 
to the Apollo lunar landing module; from insects and meteorites to paintings and 
memorabilia of the U.S. presidency. As the steward of the national collections, 
the Smithsonian has a unique responsibility to manage and preserve the 
collections held in trust for the public. This responsibility of preserving and 
making collections accessible is an historic tradition at the Smithsonian. The 

178 



scope, depth, and unparalleled quality of these collections make it imperative to 
ensure that they are properly preserved and made accessible for current and 
future generations to enjoy and study. 

Moreover, Smithsonian collections have a unique and significant role in 
addressing scientific and societal issues of the 21st century. For example: 

• Scientific collections acquired a century or more ago are being used 
today to address challenges facing society, including global warming, 
invasive species, and deadly diseases such as Avian Flu. 

• Smithsonian collections contribute to population recovery of endangered 
species, advances in reproductive biology, genome resource banking, 
medical research, forensic analysis, bio-security, and conservation 
policy worldwide. 

• The encyclopedic collection at the National Museum of Natural History 
(NMNH) is an essential resource for scientists worldwide studying the 
earth sciences, the biological world, and human origins and cultures. 

Collections care is not a single process or procedure, but a series of 
components that are interwoven, interdependent, and ongoing. The condition 
of facilities housing collections, the quality of storage and preservation, and 
the ability to document collections in manual and electronic formats directly 
affect the Smithsonian's ability to make collections available to scholars and 
the general public worldwide. Because collections care is fundamental to the 
Smithsonian's mission, there is a critical and urgent need for new resources to 
accomplish basic collections management activities for accountability, 
preservation, and accessibility of the collections. 

During 2004-2005, the Smithsonian participated in the Heritage Health 
Index (HHI), a nationwide survey that documented the condition and 
preservation needs of the nation's cultural and scientific heritage. The survey 
found that Smithsonian collections are at risk of damage, deterioration, or loss 
due to declining resources for basic collections care that have resulted in 
substandard or insufficient storage, inadequate object housing, and adverse 
environmental conditions. The survey documented the following statistics: 

• One-third of Smithsonian collections space is below acceptable quality 

• Seventy-seven percent of Smithsonian units have experienced damage 
to their collections due to improper storage 

• Seventy-five percent need additional collections space to accommodate 
all collections safely and appropriately 

In FY 2009, the budget request includes an increase of $1,000,000 for 
the collections care initiative to continue making improvements in the 
stewardship of Smithsonian collections. 

179 



MEANS AND STRATEGY - RESEARCH EQUIPMENT POOL 

The Smithsonian's ambitious research agenda requires appropriate 
equipment to reach its goals. This basic equipment infrastructure requires 
regular maintenance, upgrades, and routine replacement. With the current 
allocation, the Institution will strive to address these needs. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY - LATINO INITIATIVES POOL 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement through research and 
education initiatives, the Latino Initiatives Pool provides annual funding for 
Smithsonian programs that focus on U.S. -Latino experiences and contributions to 
science, history, art, music, and society. Pool funds enhance programs supporting 
exhibits, collections management, live programs, education, research, and 
community/public outreach. Projects are selected on a competitive basis from 
proposals that demonstrate effective deployment of the pool funds, other 
Smithsonian resources, and external funding. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY - COLLECTIONS CARE INITIATIVE 

To achieve the goals of Increased Public Engagement and Enhanced 
Management Excellence, resources will be applied to address the most critical 
collections needs in the two main areas: the Collections Care and Preservation 
Fund and the IRM Pool for collections information systems. 

The collections care and preservation resources will enable the 
Smithsonian to conduct an Institution-wide collections assessment program, 
preserve collections, and store them in better conditions for use, while the 
collections information systems resources will continue the digitization of 
collections information and images, and provide improved public access to the 
national collections through the Internet. 

• Collections Care and Preservation 

The Smithsonian has taken a pragmatic and systematic approach to 
improve the stewardship of Smithsonian collections. Critical steps taken to 
date include: 

o creation of the first-ever Smithsonian Collections Advisory 

Committee to establish the Institution's priorities for collections 

management and implement an action plan 
o development of collections-specific performance goals and standards 

for senior management and museum directors 
o revision of the Smithsonian's collections management policy and 

implementation standards 
o development of short- and long-term collection goals for Smithsonian 

units 

180 



o development of an inventory of current Smithsonian collections 
storage space, including the identification of unit collections storage 
requirements 

o stabilization and treatment of specific collections at risk 

In FY 2009, the Smithsonian will continue to build on these initiatives 
and follow an action plan for systematically addressing the critical preservation 
and storage needs of collections, including short- and long-term priorities, 
goals, and objectives. 

• IRM Pool — Collections Information Systems 

Collections information systems serve as cornerstones for 
accountability, public education, and research. Digitizing collections 
information helps achieve the goal of improving the stewardship and 
accessibility of the national collections via the Internet. CIS resources support 
the deployment, maintenance, and enhancement of unit-specific collections 
information systems; fund the continued digitization of collections; and 
improve access to digital information on collections for scientific inquiry and 
public use. Examples of past funded projects include: 

o the migration of millions of records from obsolete legacy database 

systems to stable and supported collections information systems 
o the digitization of more than 13 million collections records and images 
o the enhancement of registration-level records with research findings, 

curatorial notes, and digital images 
o the purchase and implementation of a single, commercial collections 
information system for the Smithsonian's six art museums as well as 
the National Air and Space Museum, the National Postal Museum, 
and the Anacostia Community Museum 
o the purchase and customization of a digital asset management 
system used by multiple Smithsonian units 

MEANS AND STRATEGY - INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POOL 

IRM Pool funds support network operations and server administration. 
Specifically, funds are used for: 

• upgrades and enhancements to the Smithsonian's information 
technology (IT) infrastructure 

contractor support in the Network Operations Center 
provision of Active Directory and desktop migration technicians 
network hardware/software maintenance 
digitization of collections information and images 
public delivery of Smithsonian digital assets 



181 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement — Latino Initiatives Pool 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences ($1, 121,000) 

• Continue to support Smithsonian collections, exhibitions, programs, 
research, educational activities, and other Smithsonian initiatives of 
interest to the Latino community, including the acquisition of 
additional relevant Latino art and artifacts 

• Continue to facilitate the infusion of materials with relevant Latino 
themes and data into Smithsonian exhibits and programs to ensure 
that diversity is well-represented in Smithsonian venues 

• Continue to develop internal and external partnerships to help bridge 
Smithsonian initiatives into the Latino community, and connect the 
Latino community with the Smithsonian 

Increased Public Engagement — Collections Care Initiatives 

improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations ($2,878,000) 

• Maintain state-of-the-art collections management systems 

• Enhance conservation, storage, and preservation of the National 
Collections 

• Employ contractors to enhance online access to collections through 
cataloguing, photography, database administration, and technical 
services 

Strengthened Research — Research Equipment Pool 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin 
and evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, 
and human culture ($1,614,000) 

• Put core research equipment on a routine replacement cycle to 
support the Smithsonian's research mission and enhance the 
Institution's ability to compete for external funding 

• Increase the Institution's capacity to conduct research by placing 
costly analytical equipment under contract to ensure that it is 
maintained and functioning properly 

Enhanced Management Excellence — IRM Pool 

Modernize the Institution's information technology systems and 
infrastructure ($2,226,000) 

• Support the Managed Information Technology Infrastructure initiative 

• Support the Institution's information technology requirements 

• Support Smithsonian collections information systems and public 
delivery of collections content and images through the Internet 



182 



FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate for Institution-wide programs includes an 
increase of $1,000,000 for the Collections Care and Preservation Fund. The 
Smithsonian has developed a pragmatic approach to improve the stewardship 
of its collections, and the Smithsonian Collections Advisory Committee has 
developed an action plan to systematically address the critical needs of 
collections, including short- and long-term priorities, goals, and objectives. The 
Collections Care and Preservation Fund is the key to the successful execution 
of this plan, but the current level of funding is insufficient to meet the 
Smithsonian's collection needs. 

This increase is requested to improve collections care, mitigate 
collections deterioration, and address the highest priority collections care 
needs throughout the Institution by: 

• conducting an Institution-wide collections assessment program, based 
on established museum benchmarks, to guide long-term strategic plans 
and performance metrics for collections care 

• addressing the Smithsonian Inspector General's audit recommendations 
regarding deficiencies in collections inventory and security 

• stabilizing, re-housing, and inventorying specific collections at risk 
throughout the Smithsonian, including film, fossils, textiles, botanical 
and marine mammal specimens, meteorites, minerals, DNA collections, 
graphic arts, and new media 

• providing funds to continue purchasing compact storage units and 
housing for collections, as well as replacing obsolete cabinetry and 
materials that are currently detrimental and hazardous to collections, 
staff, and researchers 

• stabilizing, conserving, and storing the Smithsonian's photographic 
holdings of 1 3 million images 

• providing funds to conduct collections-level assessments, preservation 
surveys, and inventories to establish priorities and strategic plans for 
the allocation of collections care resources 

If the FY 2009 increase is not allowed, there will be significant long- 
term consequences. The lack of funding will hinder the Smithsonian initiative 
to strategically address Institution-wide critical collections care needs. If the 
FY 2009 request for the collections care initiative is not approved, the 
Smithsonian will not meet its collections stewardship responsibilities, leaving 
the Institution vulnerable to charges of poor trusteeship in its role as caretaker 
of the National Collections. 



183 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS CENTRAL 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


27 


2,795 


11 


275 





72 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


30 


2,793 


10 


909 














FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


30 


2,872 


10 


886 















STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Ch 


ange 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


26 


2,379 


26 


2,440 





61 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


4 


414 


4 


432 





18 


Total 


30 


2,793 


30 


2,872 





79 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The mission of the Office of Exhibits Central (OEC) is to provide 
comprehensive exhibition services to the Smithsonian Institution and the larger 
museum community, so that they can provide compelling, high-quality, cost- 
effective exhibitions that connect the American people to their history and 
cultural and scientific heritages. 

To achieve the goal of Increased Public Engagement, the OEC will continue 
to expand its project management capability to ensure a more coordinated, full- 
service, and cost-effective approach to exhibit production. Of equal importance 
will be the expansion of the OEC's consultation and exhibition planning services 



184 



to improve the exhibition planning and development processes throughout the 
Institution. In addition, the OEC will increase the amount of unique work done in- 
house, outsource more production-oriented work, and broaden its collaborations 
with other Smithsonian units. The OEC will also continue to emphasize its 
innovation and modernization initiatives by expanding services offered via state- 
of-the-art, computer-controlled technology in the production units. With the 
recent merger of the OEC and the International Gallery Exhibition Services, the 
OEC is dramatically expanding its influence, not only within the Smithsonian but 
throughout the museum world, both nationally and internationally. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, the OEC will 
ensure that its cost-reimbursement process is fair and reasonable, and will 
measure progress based on feedback from customers. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $79,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

As the Smithsonian's most comprehensive producer of exhibits, the OEC is 
dedicated to providing its Smithsonian clients with first-class exhibition design, 
editing, production, and installation services. Each year, the OEC designs and 
produces approximately 100 projects, large and small, for almost every office and 
museum in the Smithsonian. The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES) continues to be the OEC's largest client. The OEC has taken over 
the International Gallery Exhibition Services and is expanding its museum 
exhibition services throughout the museum community. 

In FY 2009, most OEC resources will be focused on achieving the goal of 
Increased Public Engagement by: 

• improving the quality of exhibition design, consultation, production, and 
installation services 

• increasing and maintaining staff knowledge and expertise in state-of-the-art 
technology, techniques, and advances in the exhibit field, and upgrading 
equipment to support emerging trends 

• improving the exhibit development process 

To accomplish these objectives, the OEC will outsource more of the 
routine, repetitive, non-exhibit work to private contractors, thus freeing up OEC 
staff with specialized experience to concentrate on exhibits that require unique 
skills. The OEC will also build on well-established, collaborative relationships with 
other Smithsonian design and production units, and will expand its existing 
relationships and develop new ones with the many private exhibition design and 



185 



production companies available today. These efforts will be carried out through 
the OEC's Project Management Office. Taken together, these initiatives should 
result in a more informed and expert staff (through a continued emphasis on 
training), the increased use of state-of-the-art, computer-controlled graphic 
production equipment, and an improved object preparation and storage capability. 

The OEC has the following two objectives that support the Institution's 
goal of Enhanced Management Excellence: 

• Providing leadership, technical advice, and guidance to staff and the 
museum community 

• Improving administrative management functions in human resources, 
budget execution, fiscal data management, and procurement 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Offer compelling, first- class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (26 FTEs and $2,440,000) 

• Expand the OEC's Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) router services 
by five percent from FY 2006 levels, through the Office's innovation 
and modernization initiative 

• Expand exhibition services offered through the Office of Special 
Exhibition Services by five percent from FY 2006 levels 

• Maintain OEC consultation and exhibition planning services for the 
Smithsonian Institution at the FY 2007 level 

• Maintain at the FY 2007 level the project management capability and 
resources necessary to sustain the OEC's services to the Smithsonian 
Institution 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (4 FTEs and $432,000) 

• Highlight the strategic plan, annual performance plan, mission, and 
vision of the OEC and the Smithsonian at monthly staff meetings and 
weekly unit meetings so that OEC staff members are more aware of 
senior management goals for the Institution 

• Support the diversity goals of the Institution by increasing use of the 
Supplier Diversity Program by five percent from FY 2007 levels 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries and 
benefits of personnel and associated costs for the Smithsonian Community 
Committee activities. 



186 



MAJOR SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTATION 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 





4,510 




















FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 





3,822 




















FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 





3,822 





















STRATEGIC GOAL: STRENGTHENED RESEARCH 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 





3,822 





3,822 








Total 





3,822 





3,822 









BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

Smithsonian science is engaged in research and discovery focused on 
the origin and evolution of the universe, the formation and evolution of Earth 
and similar planets, the discovery and understanding of biological diversity, 
and the study of human diversity and cultural change. 



To achieve the goal of Strengthened Research, the Smithsonian uses its 
multi-year funding from the Major Scientific Instrumentation (MSI) line item to 
develop large-scale instrumentation projects that enable scientists working at 
the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to remain at the forefront 
of astronomy and astrophysics research. The Smithsonian's criteria for 
selecting and proposing MSI projects are: 1) the instrumentation will enable 
compelling scientific advances that would not otherwise occur (either at SAO 
or anywhere else in the world) for some time to come; 2) the instrumentation 
is novel and technically advanced, and would not be developed without 
SAO's contribution; and 3) the science enabled by the innovative instruments 
is consistent with the Smithsonian Institution's strategic plan, "Science 

187 



Matters: Priorities and Strategies." The fundamental role for federal 
appropriations is to support the basic scientific infrastructure that enables 
SAO to conduct research, compete for external grants and funding, publish in 
peer-reviewed journals, and inform the public about the latest scientific 
discoveries in an exciting and compelling manner. Because of the magnitude 
of the costs and the time required to fabricate major new instruments and 
reconfigure existing ones, the Institution requests that MSI funds for these 
projects be kept available until they are spent. 

During the past 50 years, astronomers have made fundamental 
discoveries about the universe, such as the existence of more than 230 
planets around nearby stars and the bizarre remnants of dead stars that emit 
large quantities of x-rays in the Milky Way Galaxy. Scientists have 
determined that the universe is about 14 billion years old and that it is 
populated with billions of galaxies, many of which have super-massive black 
holes at their centers. Research has produced strong evidence that the 
expansion of the universe has been accelerated by a mysterious and invisible 
"dark energy." Today, astronomers are poised to make the connections that 
will transform these discoveries into a coherent story of the cosmos from the 
Big Bang to the origins of life here on Earth. MSI funds are essential to meet 
this objective. 

Two SAO projects are included in the MSI line item: an array of 
submillimeter telescopes (i.e., Submillimeter Telescope Array, or SMA) on 
Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and instrumentation for the converted Multiple Mirror 
Telescope (MMT) at SAO's Fred L. Whipple Observatory at Mt. Hopkins, 
Arizona. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

SAO's mission is to engage in astrophysical research and discovery. 
Observational astrophysics is the basic science responsible for the 
understanding of the universe and its components beyond Earth. SAO has 
made leading contributions to many key discoveries in astrophysics, 
including: 1) the remarkable discovery that the universe is accelerating; 

2) the discovery of enormous patterns traced by galaxies in the universe; 

3) the most compelling demonstration of the existence of super-massive 
black holes at the centers of most galaxies; 4) the discovery of very high- 
energy gamma rays; 5) the most convincing observational evidence for the 
existence of dark matter; and 6) the discovery of planets orbiting other stars. 
SAO scientists contributed to these discoveries by using key facilities that 
enable observations in several different bands of the electromagnetic 
spectrum (i.e., the broad range of light that is emitted by objects in the 
universe). These contributions have put SAO in the forefront of this 
generation of astronomers and astrophysicists, and have made SAO, with its 

188 



partner, the Harvard College Observatory, the top choice of graduate- and 
postdoctoral-level young scientists. SAO will continue to strive to make the 
next great contribution to understanding the universe and our place in it. 

SAO's strength in observational astrophysics depends on its major 
ground-based facilities, the SMA and MMT, and the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration's space-based facilities, the Chandra X-ray 
Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Access to both ground- and 
space-based observatories enables SAO scientists to conduct research that 
would be impossible with either type of observatory alone. SAO's future 
strength in ground-based observational astrophysics is critically dependent 
on equipping the SMA and MMT with powerful new instrumentation. 
Maintaining its leadership depends on developing instruments and facilities 
that do not now exist. A team of talented scientists and engineers must 
work together, over a period of several years, to bring these tools into being, 
with support from multi-year MSI funding. 

Submillimeter Telescope Array ($1,900,000) 

The SMA, a collaborative project of SAO and the Academia Sinica 
Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan, is made up of eight 20- 
foot-diameter antennas located on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 
which function as one giant telescope. This facility operates at higher 
frequencies than those of any other major radio telescope, enabling 
scientists to probe in unprecedented detail the formation of new planets 
around other stars. 

The SMA is now the most capable submillimeter observatory in the 
world. It can operate in three frequency bands, observing simultaneously in 
two of them. The 690 Gigahertz (GHz) receivers, operating at an 
unprecedented frequency (which is hundreds of times the frequencies used 
in television, cell phones, and WiFi systems), enable observations that have 
only been dreamed of before, and clearly illuminate the leadership position 
of those working with the SMA. 

The capabilities of the SMA will be greatly expanded by the 
development and implementation of an atmospheric phase-monitoring system 
and new receivers. This will allow the eight separate antennas to be 
operated jointly when they are located at their greatest separations (up to 
half a kilometer) and at the highest operating frequencies. The SMA will have 
the resolving power of a telescope half a kilometer in size, an unprecedented 
capability at submillimeter wavelengths. SAO scientists will be able to make 
new and detailed observations of super-massive black holes at the centers of 
galaxies, and observe other solar systems where planets are forming around 
nearby stars. 

189 



In FY 2009, MSI support will be used to install an atmospheric phase- 
monitoring system that will enable SAO scientists to exploit the longest array 
baselines (which provide the greatest visual acuity), and to complete and 
install new 400 GHz receivers with dual-polarization feeds and twice the 
present bandwidth, thereby greatly increasing the sensitivity of the array. 

Multiple Mirror Telescope ($1,922,000) 

The MMT, a joint project of SAO and the University of Arizona, 
dedicated in 1979, was made up of six identical 1 .8-meter telescopes in a 
single altitude-azimuth (naval-gun-type) mount. The original multiple-mirror 
design provided a state-of-the-art solution to the technological limitation in 
casting large mirrors at that time. Following advances in mirror-casting 
technology developed by the University of Arizona, in the 1990s SAO 
replaced the six smaller mirrors of the original MMT with a single mirror 6.5 
meters in diameter, thus more than doubling the light-gathering capability 
of the telescope and increasing its field of view some 400 times. 

The converted MMT is an extremely powerful telescope. The final 
instrument needed for it is Binospec, an imaging spectrograph with dual 
8'x15' fields of view and a very compact layout for excellent stability. 
Binospec will enable SAO scientists to test the theory that galaxies form 
from mergers of smaller galaxies with halos of invisible dark matter. 
Astronomers will observe the motion of stars in neighboring galaxies to 
identify the disrupted fragments of galaxies that have merged. These 
mergers are accompanied by bursts of star formation, including the formation 
of compact globular clusters of stars. Spectroscopic studies of these star 
clusters will enable SAO scientists to measure the age and composition of 
neighboring galaxies, from which they will learn about the formation epoch 
of galaxy disks, bulges, and halos. In addition, Binospec will enable 
astronomers to study the formation of large-scale structure when the 
universe was only one-fifth of its current age. By combining these 
observations with spectroscopic studies and measurements of galaxies 
obtained via the Chandra X-ray Observatory, SAO scientists can create a 
map of the cosmic web at that epoch. A complementary program will probe 
even further back in time to measure the environments of distant galaxies, 
and compare these measurements with those from theoretical astrophysical 
simulations being carried out at SAO using the Keck computer cluster. 
FY 2009 MSI support will be used to continue work on Binospec and ship it 
to the MMT for commissioning and its first research experiments. 



190 



STRATEGIC GOAL AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin 
and evolution of the universe, Earth and planets, biological diversity, 
and human culture ($3,822,000) 

• Continue developing and implementing the atmospheric phase- 
monitoring system and constructing the new receivers needed to 
expand the capabilities of SAO's SMA. SAO scientists will be able to 
observe solar systems in which planets are forming, and super- 
massive black holes such as the one at the center of the Milky Way 
and those in other nearby galaxies 

• Continue work on Binospec and ship it to the MMT for 
commissioning. Binospec will enable SAO scientists to conduct 
extremely efficient spectroscopic studies of very faint objects, study 
the formation and evolution of galaxies and other large-scale structure 
in the universe, and better understand the pervasive dark matter and 
dark energy in the cosmos 



191 



MUSEUM SUPPORT CENTER 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


20 


2,048 




















FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


25 


1,758 




















FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


25 


1,800 





















STRATEGIC GOAL: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


25 


1,758 


25 


1,800 





42 


Total 


25 


1,758 


25 


1,800 





42 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Museum Support Center (MSC) is the principal off-site conservation 
and collections facility for the National Museum of Natural History's 
irreplaceable national collections. In addition, the MSC houses important 
collections from other Smithsonian museums, such as the National Museum of 
American History. Located in Suitland, Maryland, this facility houses more 
than 31 million objects. The MSC accommodates collections within three 
general types of storage media: collections in cabinets, open shelving for 
biological specimens preserved in alcohol, and high bay storage for very large 
objects such as totem poles, boats, meteorites, and large, mounted mammals. 

The facility also houses laboratories for molecular systematics, 
conservation, and other specialized research. The MSC staff provides collections 
management services, including preservation and logistics, safety and pest 
control, and administrative, shipping, and receiving services. The staff also 
oversee security operations required for the proper care of museum collections, 



192 



and provide computer support services for administrative, research, and 
collections management data needs. 

The Institution is not seeking additional programmatic funding for this line 
item. The FY 2009 budget request includes an increase of $42,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To support the goal of Increased Public Engagement, funding will be 
used to upgrade facilities to provide more accessibility to visiting researchers, 
students, museum professionals and designers, and others. Upgrades to 
electronic communications capabilities will increase access to collections by 
conservators and researchers. Enhanced preservation equipment and programs 
will increase the long-term use of the collections. 

In FY 2009, funds will be used to complete moving collections stored in 
alcohol and other fluids from the Natural History Building (NHB) on the Mall to 
MSC, which can safely store the Museum's valuable biological collections. 
These collections are currently housed in non-code-compliant facilities. In 
addition, funds will be used to begin preparations for moving physical 
anthropology collections currently stored in the NHB to the MSC Pod 3, which 
is undergoing renovations. 

STRATEGIC GOAL AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections for present and 
future generations (25 FTEs and $ 1,800,000) 

• Complete the relocation of vertebrate, invertebrate, and botanical 
collections stored in alcohol and other fluids from the MSC Pod 3 and 
NHB to the MSC Pod 5 

• Complete the move of associated offices, laboratories, libraries, and 
archives to Pod 5 

• Prepare plans for moving collections to the renovated Pod 3 and begin 
to prepare collections for relocation 

• Ensure the safety of staff and collections by reducing the number of 
findings noted in the annual Management Evaluation and Technical 
Reviews, and ensure that safety programs are in place 

• Continue to provide improved collections care: cleaning, storage (such 
as object supports and archival storage containers), and pest control 

• Enhance facility systems for monitoring the environment 

• Enhance support services to accommodate increase in staff activity 
and collections as staff and collections are relocated to MSC 



193 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ARCHIVES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


15 


1,432 


2 


166 


1 


136 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


20 


1,899 


2 


194 


1 


91 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


20 


1,968 


2 


197 















STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


3 


277 


3 


302 





25 


Provide reference services and information to the public 


2 


199 


2 


207 





8 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


1 


71 


1 


78 





7 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


10 


925 


10 


953 





28 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


2 


204 


2 


202 





-2 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


2 


223 


2 


226 





3 


Total 


20 


1,899 


20 


1,968 





69 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) is the institutional memory of a 
unique American cultural resource and steward of national collections. SIA serves 
the Smithsonian community, scholars, and the public by evaluating, acquiring, 



194 



and preserving the records of the Institution and related documentary materials. In 
addition, it develops policies and provides guidance for managing the Institution's 
vast archival collections, offers a range of reference, research, and record-keeping 
services, and creates products that promote understanding of the Smithsonian 
and its history. 

Beginning in 2008, the Office of Smithsonian Photographic Services (SPS) 
transferred from the Communications line tern to SIA. SPS enhances public 
access to the Smithsonian Institution (SI) through the free distribution (for 
educational use) of images, sales of images to publishers, and support of traveling 
exhibitions. In addition, SPS provides photographic support for Smithsonian 
administration, museums, and research centers. SPS produces images for exhibits 
and exhibit catalogues, brochures, posters, websites, and advertising. 
Additionally, SPS maintains a collection of more than three million historical 
images, and provides support to SI collection managers in the housing of 
photographic collections for preservation and research. SPS also takes the annual 
official photographs of members of the U.S. Supreme Court. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of $69,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

In FY 2009, SIA will continue consolidating its off-site collections storage 
at the National Underground Storage facility, becoming less dependent on rented 
space in the Washington, DC area. 

SIA will focus on capturing, preserving, and providing access to research 
materials on Smithsonian history. SIA will continue to support the needs of 
thousands of researchers seeking information from the Archives; provide online 
access to ever more information from or about the holdings; collaborate fully with 
units serving broad external audiences (such as The Smithsonian Associates, the 
Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies [SCEMS], and the 
Affiliations Program); set archival collections management standards; and assist 
all Smithsonian units with the proper disposition of their files. 

In FY 2009, SIA will disseminate results of the grant-funded project that 
developed a full electronic records program for the acquisition, preservation, and 
long-term accessibility of Smithsonian records. The program was designed to be a 
model for small and medium-sized, non-profit organizations to use in managing 
their electronic records. SIA will develop electronic records retention requirements 
for valuable electronic records held and created throughout the Institution. SIA 
will continue to provide paper conservation and preservation expertise to all units 
as needed. 



195 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences in a lifelong exploration and 
understanding of art, history, science, and culture (3 FTEs and 
$302,000 

• Provide access to Smithsonian information for the public through 
the free educational distribution of images via the Web, sale of 
images to publishers, and support of traveling exhibitions 

Provide reference services and information to the public (2 FTEs and 
$207,000) 

• Conduct a minimum of three public presentations on SI history, drawn 
from the Archives' collections, to reveal to non-scholarly audiences the 
wealth of information in SIA 

• Support SCEMS by providing at least one instructor to present two 
workshops for K-12 teachers and non-Smithsonian museum professionals 

• Support the Affiliations Program and The Smithsonian Associates by 
giving at least five public lectures on Smithsonian history 

• Respond, in accordance with service standards, to a minimum of 3,000 
requests for information from the Archives' collections 

• Provide documentary photographic coverage of historically 
significant activities such as VIP visits and opening events 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (1 FTE and $78,000) 

• Produce photographic images for exhibit catalogues, brochures, 
posters, websites, advertising, and for use in exhibits 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (10 FTEs and 
$953,000) 

• Manage risk, ensure accountability, maximize use of space, and 
appraise historically valuable records by creating records schedules for 
major units throughout the Smithsonian (2009 targets include the 
Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Treasurer's Office) 

• Provide greater public access to information about SIA's holdings by 
adding or refreshing collections information on the SIA website and 
continuing to add 200 new records to the Smithsonian Institution 
Research Information System (SIRIS) 

• Create or add substantive information to 250 records in the History of 
the Smithsonian catalogue in SIRIS 

• Protect and preserve the Smithsonian's documentary heritage by re- 
housing a minimum of 500 cubic feet of materials 

• Refine methods and processes for preserving historically valuable 
electronic records (such as email and websites), thereby ensuring future 
access to those records 



196 



• Develop plans for consolidating archival storage space to reduce unit 
costs and improve the storage environment 

• Maintain the collections of more than three million historical 
images, and support all Smithsonian collections managers in the 
documentation of their collections for preservation and research 
purposes 

Strengthened Research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through original 
research (2 FTEs and $202,000) 

• Develop an online "Using Archives" tutorial for use by remote and on- 
site researchers 

• Sponsor interns and Fellows working on in-depth research projects 
based on SIA archival resources 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 
oriented (2 FTEs and $226,000) 

• Develop generic requirements and specifications for electronic records 
management that can be used as a model by other small to medium- 
sized, non-profit archival organizations for the management of electronic 
records 

• Provide guidance and service to all units needing expertise in: records 
management; paper preservation and conservation; cold-storage 
requirements for collections; and other archival policies and procedures 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds provide support for 
salary and benefit costs for an archivist and paper conservator. Donor/sponsor- 
designated funds support salaries and benefits of an electronic records archivist 
assigned to the SIA-Rockefeller Archive Center's Collaborative Electronic Records 
Project. 



197 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 

APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


89 


9,216 


9 


1,227 


2 


594 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


97 


9,413 


10 


1,030 





2,031 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


97 


9,624 


10 


1,030 





1,794 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


1 


67 


1 


69 





2 


Provide reference services and information to the 

public 


19 


1,415 


19 


1,452 





37 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 


1 


62 


1 


64 





2 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national collections 


47 


3,729 


4 7 


3,824 





95 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


8 


1,388 


8 


1,413 





25 


Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


6 


836 


6 


852 





16 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information technology 
systems and infrastructure 


1 


76 


1 


78 





2 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


13 


1,788 


13 


1,819 





31 


Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by 
maintaining good relations with the news media and 
with federal, state, and local governments 


1 


52 


1 


53 





1 


Total 


97 


9,413 


97 


9.624 





211 



198 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

As the largest and most diverse museum library in the world, the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) leads the Smithsonian in taking advantage 
of the opportunities of the digital society. SIL provides authoritative information 
and creates innovative services for Smithsonian Institution researchers, 
scholars, and curators, as well as the general public, to further their quest for 
knowledge. Through paper preservation and digital technologies, SIL ensures 
broad and enduring access to the Libraries' collections for all users. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes a total increase of $211 ,000, 
for necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

SIL's expanding and diverse Web content has fueled an exponential rise 
in users each year and will continue to reach millions of students, teachers, 
researchers, scholars, and the general public. Through traveling exhibitions, 
public lectures, educational programs, and publications, SIL will increase its 
audiences nationwide in FY 2009. SIL also reaches individual researchers and 
members of the public in every state and many foreign countries by lending 
crucial books and articles through its interlibrary loan program. The Dibner 
Library and Baird Resident Scholar programs will continue to build collaborative 
partnerships with scholarly programs throughout the Institution and elsewhere. 

In FY 2009, SIL will increase access to Smithsonian collections by adding 
new information to the Smithsonian Institution Research and Information 
System (SIRIS) and by further developing Web-based indexes. For example, SIL 
will expand indexing of its trade literature collection by adding records for trade 
literature at the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum (CHNDM) Library, and 
other SIL libraries, to the records of more than 400,000 items housed in the 
National Museum of American History (NMAH) Library. 

SIL will continue a vigilant program of collections management through 
the disciplined acquisition of the most significant library materials and 
collections documenting the nation's cultural and scientific heritage. SIL staff 
maintains strong, ongoing conservation efforts. SIL's master space plan 
responds to changes in SI researchers' needs; maintaining tightly focused on- 
site collections while relieving overcrowded libraries by providing 
environmentally sound off-Mall shelving, housing for expanded conservation, 
and imaging activities. After the Smithsonian vacates the Smithsonian 
Institution Service Center (SISC) location and moves occupants, including SIL, 
to a more desirable and upgraded space, SIL will transfer more of its collections 
there. At the same time, SIL will continue to coordinate efforts with planned 
renovations and master space plans of the NMAH, the National Museum of 



199 



Natural History (NMNH), the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
(SERC), and other units. In FY 2009, SIL will continue to implement steps 
outlined in its master space plan by addressing the most critical needs for 
adequately organized and environmentally controlled collections space at the 
CHNDM Library and at the National Zoological Park (NZP) and its Conservation 
and Research Center (CRC) in Front Royal, Virginia. 

In addition, SIL will continue to inform the nation about its collections and 
create interest in them through its exhibition program, which shows the intrinsic 
beauty of books as artifacts and cultural icons, as well as the value of books for 
the information they provide as documentation for art and artifact collections. In 
FY 2009, SIL intends to open an exhibition in NMAH featuring selections from 
its rich collection of illustrated books — Picturing Words. SIL will continue to 
travel an exhibition version of Picturing Words to SI Affiliates and libraries 
nationwide. Staff has begun collaborating with NMNH personnel to plan an 
exhibition focusing on interactions between Smithsonian scientists and the work 
of Charles Darwin, which will open, in NMNH, in FY 2009 as part of the Darwin 
200th birthday celebration. 

SIL is escalating the publication of digital research products to give 
scholars the documentation they need for their research in all fields. These 
products include republication of significant out-of-print books and articles, 
original diaries and manuscripts, collections of archival literature, illustrations, 
topical exhibitions, and bibliographic guides and databases. In FY 2009, SIL will 
create new Web-based publications in its Sources and Critical Interpretations 
series. With private funding, SIL will continue digitizing the legacy literature of 
biodiversity to contribute to the Biodiversity Heritage Library. SIL will also 
continue its partnership with the SI Scholarly Press by producing the electronic 
versions of new publications that form the SI Contributions series, and by 
hosting and maintaining the Scholarly Press's website. As part of its archival 
responsibility, SIL has established the Smithsonian Digital Document Repository 
to preserve and provide permanent access to the scholarly results of the 
Institution's research. In FY 2009, SIL will continue to work with the 
Institution's art and history museums to expand the content of the Repository. 
SIL will also expand the number of units contributing information about their 
staffs' research publications to the SI Research Bibliography. 

In FY 2009, SIL will improve access to electronic journals and databases 
to make their contents easily available throughout the Smithsonian. In 
accordance with the Institution's goal of Strengthened Research, SIL will also 
deliver more information through the Web directly to researchers, with an 
emphasis on information resources in history and culture. SIL will provide 
metadata guidance and incorporate, as appropriate, emerging national metadata 
standards on an Institution-wide basis for SIL and SI digital publications and 
products. 



200 



STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (1 FTE and $69,000) 

• Enlarge SIL audience, expand degree of engagement in 
Washington, DC, and improve the quality of SIL impact on 
audience through educational programs such as the Dibner Library 
Lecture and its publication 

Provide reference services and information to the public (19 FTEs and 
$1,452,000) 

• Increase usage of the SIL website to advance knowledge of and 
improve access to SIL collections by adding content 

• Continue to offer high-quality information in response to queries 
and to loan library materials throughout the nation via the 
interlibrary loan service 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions (1 FTE and $64,000) 

• Promote and present SIL traveling exhibitions, such as the gallery 
Picturing Words 

• Open Picturing Words exhibition on book illustration in SIL's gallery 
in NMAH 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (47 FTEs and 
$3,824,000) 

• Expand access to SIL collections and their associated information 
in SIRIS and on the World Wide Web 

• Continue disciplined acquisition of the most significant items and 
collections that document the nation's and the world's cultural and 
scientific heritages 

• Maintain state-of-the-art processes for the physical storage, 
conservation, and preservation needed to ensure the longevity of the 
collections 

• Improve library spaces for reader use and collection storage (e.g., 
CHNDM, NZP, CRC, and Freer and Sackler Gallery projects) 

• Submit master space plan for the Institution's review and begin 
implementing recommendations 

• Continue working with the Office of Facilities Engineering and 
Operations (OFEO) to complete the NMNH Northeast Quadrant 
Project 

Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery (8 FTEs and $ 1,4 13,000) 

• Provide the science units (i.e., museums and research centers) with 
orientation to optimize scientists' use of library resources 

• Expand unit contributions of their scientific research staffs' 
publications to the SI Research Bibliography and to the Smithsonian 
Document Digital Repository 



201 



• Publish electronic versions of SI Contributions and Studies Series, 
museum-oriented publications that can fulfill the publishing needs 
of the growing number of Smithsonian research units 

• Continue digitization of biodiversity publications to build the 
resources needed for the Biodiversity Heritage Library 

Ensure the advancement of know/edge in the humanities (6 FTEs and 
$852,000) 

• Provide the art and history museums with orientation to optimize 
researchers' use of library resources 

• Promote art and history resources widely to Smithsonian 
researchers 

• Expand unit contributions of their art and history research staffs' 
publications to the SI Research Bibliography and to the Smithsonian 
Document Digital Repository 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Modernize the Institution 's information technology systems and 
infrastructure (1 FTE and $78,000) 

• Upgrade SIRIS capabilities/functions for staff and public access 

• Develop alternative approaches for providing Web-accessible (i.e., 
Web-enabled) holdings of SIL collections to researchers, scholars, 
and other users worldwide 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (13 FTEs and $1,819,000) 

• Demonstrate further progress on development and implementation 
of process management and performance indicators, and ensure 
that performance metrics are consistent and integrated into 
individual performance goals 

Enhance the reputation of the Smithsonian by maintaining good 
relations with the news media and with federal, state, and local 
governments (1 FTE and $53,000) 

• Create positive publicity and provide the public with information 
about SIL 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds help defray the 
costs of providing information services to Smithsonian units, and support 
exhibitions, publications, public programs, and fundraising efforts. 
Donor/sponsor-designated funds support projects and programs such as the 
SIL/Dibner Library Resident Scholar Program, the Baird Society Scholar 
Program, lectures, publications, acquisitions, and preservation activities. 



202 



ADMINISTRATION 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


245 


62,962 


175 


28,918 


4 


1,810 





10 


FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


264 


65,509 


188 


27,136 


7 


1,535 


1 


50 


FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


267 


69,229 


188 


28,125 


6 


1,293 


1 


45 



STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT; STRENGTHENED 
RESEARCH; AND ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Ch 


ange 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Public Programs 














Engage and inspire diverse audiences 


3 


270 


3 


277 





7 


Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions 





185 





189 





4 


Collections 














Improve the stewardship of the national 
collections 


2 


223 


2 


228 





5 


Strengthened Research 














Research 














Engage in research and discovery 


7 


837 


7 


867 





30 


Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the 
humanities 


1 


93 


1 


93 








Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization 
program and limited construction of new facilities 





42 











-42 


Security and Safety 














Provide a safe and healthy environment to 
support Smithsonian programs 


1 


110 


1 


114 





4 


Information Technology 














Modernize the Institution's information 
technology systems and infrastructure 


85 


36,751 


86 


39,400 


1 


2,649 


Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is 
customer centered and results oriented 


26 


3,043 


29 


3,529 


3 


486 



203 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Ensure that the workforce is efficient, 
collaborative, committed, innovative, and diverse 


60 


10,895 


59 


10,923 


-1 


28 


Modernize the Institution's financial management 
and accounting operations 


54 


9,140 


54 


9,397 





257 


Modernize and streamline the Institution's 
acquisitions management operations 


25 


3,920 


25 


4,212 





292 


Total 


264 


65,509 


267 


69,229 


3 


3,720 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Smithsonian Institution Administration program provides vision, 
leadership, policy, and oversight associated with managing and operating the 
museums and research centers. Administration includes executive leadership 
provided by the offices of the Secretary, the Under Secretaries for Science, Art, 
History and Culture, and Finance and Administration, as well as the central 
administrative activities of human resources, diversity, financial, information 
technology (IT), and contract management, as well as legal services. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate reflects a net increase of 3 FTEs and 
$3,720,000. This amount includes $945,000 for necessary pay for existing staff 
funded under this line item; $25,000 for the annual Smithsonian financial 
statement audit; $35,000 to conduct the annual inventory of one-third of the 
Institution's physical assets; $184,000 for Workers' Compensation; $220,000 to 
support Smithsonian-wide procurement training; $850,000 for the increased cost 
of mission-critical, annually recurring software licenses; and $1,136,000 for 
increased communications costs, including the replacement of outdated network 
switches and routers. These amounts are justified in the Mandatory Costs section 
of this budget submission. 

The FY 2009 estimate also includes 3 FTEs and $525,000 in programmatic 
increases to support critical requirements for financial analysis, reporting, and 
documentation of financial data to implement the recommendations of the Board 
of Regents' Governance and Nominating Committee; and for critical 
improvements to the Institution's IT infrastructure and support. Also included is a 
programmatic reduction of -$200,000 to return one-time FY 2008 funding for the 
Smithsonian Human Capital and Workforce Restructuring Plan. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

The Institution will use best practices in management to enhance the 
"increase and diffusion of knowledge" and achieve the Institution's goals. The 
following strategies are cross-cutting and central to performing the Smithsonian's 
mission of connecting Americans to their history and heritage, as well as to 
promoting innovation, research, and discovery in science: 



204 



• Support the Board of Regents and its committees 

• Provide high-quality leadership and oversight for all policies, programs, and 
activities of the Institution's museums and research centers by attracting, 
recruiting, and retaining leaders with superior talent 

• Manage human resources, foster diversity, and align human capital with the 
Institution's goals and performance objectives. Ensure that the right people are 
in the right jobs by implementing the recommendations of the Smithsonian's 
comprehensive workforce analysis study. Continue to conduct workforce and 
gap analyses, strengthen training policies and programs, develop succession 
planning, and evaluate and improve assessment tools for human resources 
performance 

• Use state-of-the-art, secure information systems to modernize financial, 
human resources, facilities management, collections, education, and research 
processes 

• Replace network equipment, servers, desktop computers, and scientific 
workstations on an industry best practice life cycle to increase reliability and 
improve the security of information systems and the data that they contain 

• Leverage commercially available technology to enhance existing IT systems at 
the Smithsonian so that they will increase public access to and use of digital 
surrogates of collection objects and research data; and develop an Institution- 
wide Digitization Strategic Plan that addresses the creation, management, and 
use of these digital assets 

• Maintain the Institution's telecommunications infrastructure to provide reliable, 
secure, and cost-effective voice and data communications systems that 
support Smithsonian missions 

• Meet federal requirements for providing timely and accurate financial 
information and improve the Institution's ability to integrate financial and 
performance management systems as part of the Enterprise Resource Planning 
(ERP) effort 

• Advance the Institution's mission in the most economic, efficient, and 
effective way by supporting audit, evaluation, investigative, contracting, and 
other advisory services 

• Implement the Smithsonian Arts Strategic Plan and ensure public safety in the 
art museums 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Engage and inspire diverse audiences (3 FTEs and $277,000) 

• Work with Smithsonian units and museum directors to offer compelling, 
first-class exhibitions and other public programs highlighting Latino 
collections and contributions throughout the Institution 

• Maintain dialogue with Smithsonian units and museum directors to 
develop and expand a national outreach effort to share the 



205 



Smithsonian's resources with larger, more diverse audiences throughout 
America, particularly in the Latino community 

• Maximize the effectiveness of cutting-edge technologies to increase 
access to first-class educational resources throughout the nation, and 
raise awareness of the Smithsonian's Latino Center via continued 
development of virtual gallery exhibitions, a Latino Virtual Museum, and 
the online availability of Latino-themed educational resources 

• Strengthen capacity in science research by supporting the study of 
human diversity and cultural change 

• Support collections-based studies that enhance existing databases, 
create new ones, and increase the potential of the collections for future 
scientific inquiry and public use — particularly in the area of Latino 
contributions 

• Continue to assess and evaluate visitors' reactions to Smithsonian 
exhibitions, programs, websites, services, facilities, and external 
environments 

Offer compelling, first-class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 

across the nation ($189,000) 

Increase collaboration and cooperation within the Institution and with 
external organizations to improve exhibition planning activities 
Assist with surveys of museum visitors and help develop marketing 
goals, strategies, and specific activities aimed at increasing visitation 
Increase the presence on the Mall of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory (SAO), Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, and 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Improve the stewardship of the national collections (2 FTEs and $228,000) 
Issue reports on the National Collections, including Collection Statistics, 
and the Financial Collections Disclosure report 
Continue to implement the Smithsonian Collections Advisory 
Committee's Action Plan 

Assist Smithsonian units in developing and implementing up-to-date 
collections management policies, collection plans, cyclical inventory 
plans, and digitization plans 

Conduct an Institution-wide collections assessment program, based on 
established museum benchmarks, to guide long-term strategic plans and 
provide performance metrics for collections care 

Advise Smithsonian senior management by providing data to support 
strategic planning for collections 

Provide leadership and programmatic support for the Smithsonian 
Collections Advisory Committee, including the production of collections- 
related symposia, seminars, and project reports 



206 



Strengthened Research 

Engage in research and discovery focused on understanding the origin and 
evolution of the universe. Earth and planets, biological diversity, and human 
culture (7 FTEs and $867,000) 

• Continue to monitor implementation of the Science Strategic Plan and 
focal areas of the science themes 

• Increase cross-cutting collaboration in support of science themes and 
focal areas such as planets, biodiversity, and human diversity 

• Increase support for the scientific research program, including forest- 
based research that can be used to measure the effects of global 
climate change, and support the next-generation telescope to explore 
the origin and evolution of the universe 

• Reinstate colloquia and symposia in support of the science themes and 
focal areas 

• Provide the infrastructure and tools necessary to sustain scientific 
research 

Ensure the advancement of knowledge in the humanities through original 
research, including research on collections, that is reflected in publications, 
exhibitions/displays, and public programs (1 FTE and $93,000) 

• Continue provenance research on Smithsonian collections, which may 
include up to 2,000 objects in the Freer and Sackler collections, or may 
focus on up to 600 prints and drawings in the collections of the 
National Museum of American History and the Smithsonian American 
Art Museum 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Provide a safe and healthy environment to support Smithsonian programs 
(1 FTE and $114,000) 

• Identify, reduce, and eliminate or control safety hazards in the art 
museums 

Modernize the Institution's information technology (IT) systems and 
infrastructure (86 FTEs and $39,400,000) 

• Maintain the Smithsonian's telecommunications infrastructure to provide 
reliable, cost-effective voice and data systems which support 
Smithsonian missions 

• Continue to implement and support the ERP system, including an 
upgrade to the latest PeopleSoft release 

• Replace 25 percent of the Institution's desktop personal computers 

• Implement periodic replacement of scientific workstations 

• Deploy the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) 

• Replace scientific computing and archive servers 

• Implement a centralized video teleconferencing system 

• Expand the enterprise storage capacity to meet increased demands, and 
replace the obsolete automated tape backup systems 



207 



Support Network Operations Center extended hours and expand periodic 

replacement of network servers to include unit application servers 

Implement Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VOIP) technology at the Zoo's 

Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia 

Replace the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System 

(SIRIS) that will no longer be supported by its vendor 

Create an Enterprise Digital Asset Network to provide seamless sharing 

and exchange of information among the Smithsonian's collections 

information systems and enterprise Digital Asset Management System 

Create a central digitization office to serve as a focal point for 

standardizing digitization at the Smithsonian and lead the development 

of an Institution-wide Digitization Strategic Plan 

Enhance the Smithsonian's centralized Web infrastructure with design 

and search capabilities 

Implement the education Web portal 

Integrate the Smithsonian Security Management System (SMS) with the 

Human Resources Management System (HRMS) 

Implement the Electronic Records Management System 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and results 

oriented (29 FTEs and $3,529,000) 

Guide the Smithsonian with modern business management techniques, 

provide quality legal counsel, and create a world-class management 

structure and team 

Provide financial leadership and guidance that reflect best business 

practices, exploit modern technology, and respond to unit needs 

Manage Institution-wide accessibility services for visitors with 

disabilities 

Provide comprehensive accessibility training to staff, docents, and 

volunteers 

Ensure implementation of and related training for governance reforms 

and encourage greater transparency and collaboration with the units 

Strengthen management services in support of the Institution's mission, 

including initiatives in the President's Management Agenda 

Improve the quality of the visitor experience for audiences by 

identifying, for possible adoption, 10 best museum and/or research 

practices 

Establish, meet, and improve upon standard tasks and time frames for 

major construction and exhibition design and fabrication of projects, 

consistent with best business practices 

Implement the Smithsonian Arts Strategic Plan 

Implement a strategic plan for history and culture at the Smithsonian, 

addressing the conceptual underpinnings, Institution-wide context, 

historical and contemporary methodologies, and importance of this 

arena of Smithsonian work in research, collections, exhibitions, 

education, and policy 

208 



Continue to implement the Smithsonian Across America Web portal 

Maintain a strong financial infrastructure to enable the Smithsonian to 

more aggressively pursue competitive grants, endowments, and donor 

funds 

Provide advice and counsel to the Board of Regents on Institution 

policies, programs, and activities 

Facilitate communications between the Board of the Regents and key 

Smithsonian leaders 

Provide support and counsel to facilitate the work of the various Regent 

committees 
Ensure that the Smithsonian workforce is efficient, collaborative, 
committed, innovative, and diverse (59 FTEs and $10,923,000) 

Build a cooperative environment among all Smithsonian staff by 

increasing communication and emphasizing each person's contribution 

to the Institution's mission 

Provide quality human resources services to a dynamic, widely diverse 

population, using modern techniques and best practices 

Continue the existing long-term work of implementing and evaluating 

the Institution-wide Human Capital Workforce Restructuring Plan to 

streamline and leverage the Institution's workforce 

Promote training and informational programs that support diversity as an 

integral part of the work culture 

Continue reshaping the Smithsonian workforce so that its diversity 

mirrors the applicable civilian labor force 

Meet procurement goals negotiated with the Small Business 

Administration regarding the use of small, minority, and women-owned 

businesses, in accordance with Smithsonian Directive 316, Supplier 

Diversity Program 
Modernize the Institution's financial management and accounting 
operations (54 FTEs and $9,397,000) 

• Support implementation of the ERP financial modules by identifying 
requirements and documenting re-engineered business practices 

• Audit and review financial management systems and functions to 
ensure the adequacy of controls and identify weaknesses 

• Conduct accounting functions for units and continue compliance 
reviews and audits 

• Present and justify the annual federal budget submission to the Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) and Congress 

Modernize and streamline the Institution's acquisitions management 
operations (25 FTEs and $4,272,000) 

• Perform all contract management activities that support major Capital 
Facilities projects and exhibitions, including precontract, contract 
negotiation, and postcontract award activities, as well as warranty and 
contract close-outs 



209 



• Improve responsiveness to the training needs of Smithsonian employees 
and contractors 

• Schedule and conduct annual physical inventory verification of 
capitalized and sensitive personal property assets for Smithsonian units 
to ensure that the PeopleSoft Asset Management database is 
maintained accurately 

• Schedule and conduct annually required training classes for primary and 
alternate accountable property officers to ensure that the decentralized 
property management functions comply with Smithsonian policies and 
procedures 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

For FY 2009, the Administration budget estimate includes a total increase 
of 3 FTEs and $3,720,000, which includes $945,000 for necessary pay for 
existing staff funded under this line item; $25,000 for the annual Smithsonian 
financial statement audit; $35,000 to conduct the annual inventory of one-third 
of the Institution's physical assets; $184,000 for Workers' Compensation; 
$220,000 to support Smithsonian-wide procurement training; $850,000 for the 
increased cost of mission-critical, annually recurring software licenses; and 
$1,136,000 for increased communications costs, including the replacement of 
outdated network switches and routers at SAO. These amounts are justified in 
the Mandatory Costs section of this budget submission. 

The programmatic summary of 3 FTEs and $525,000 for the FY 2009 
increases, along with the return of one-time FY 2008 funding, -$200,000, is 
described in greater detail below: 

• ( + $251 ,000, + 2 FTEs) This increase is requested for two GS-1 3 accountants 
to increase the Smithsonian's capacity to meet the continuing need for more 
accurate and reliable financial information, and to help prepare the Institution's 
financial statement audit. The positions will support critical requirements for 
financial analysis, reporting, and documentation of financial transactions and 
will help implement the recommendations of the Regent's Governance and 
Nominating Committee. The additional staff will also address the findings of 
the independent auditor who identified the inadequate staffing as a "significant 
deficiency" in the FY 2007 Management Letter that accompanied the filing of 
the federal financial statements. 

• ( + $274,000, +1 FTE) This increase supports a secure wireless network at 
the Smithsonian Institution. The secure wireless network is a mission-critical 
requirement to enable the museums, research centers, and administrative 
offices to connect to the Institution's IT infrastructure in areas where a wired 
network is unsuitable, impractical, and/or cost prohibitive for specific work 
locations and facilities. Maintaining the high standards of security will ensure a 

210 



minimal risk of data breaches and loss of critical information. Funds will 
provide for maintenance of the secure wireless network infrastructure, as well 
as for a GS-13 wireless network specialist to oversee the secure wireless 
network operations. 

• (-$200,000) This represents the return of one-time funding for key human 
capital initiatives for the Smithsonian Human Capital Workforce Restructuring 
Plan. 

If the FY 2009 budget request is not allowed, the Smithsonian will not be 
able to support the increased requirements for financial analysis, reporting, and 
documentation of financial transactions by the Office of the Comptroller, Office of 
Facilities Engineering and Operations, and Office of the Chief Information Officer 
(OCIO) to internal (i.e., Governance Committee and Board of Regents) and 
external sources (i.e., OMB, Department of the Treasury, and external auditors). 
The Institution would also assume the risk of a Qualified Audit Opinion and would 
not be able to implement the recommendations of the Regents' Governance and 
Nominating Committee. 

Without this funding, the OCIO will be unable to maintain and continue to 
operate the Institution's communications systems and networks as systems reach 
capacity or the end of their serviceable life. Support for software licenses is 
critical for the Smithsonian to support stewardship of the national treasures. By 
not supporting the additional infrastructure of a secure wireless network, the 
Smithsonian will not be able to use the most efficient technology to carry out the 
Institution's work in areas where the wired network infrastructure is impractical 
and cost prohibited. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support salaries and 
benefits of personnel and other related costs. General trust funds also are 
used to support administrative activities, information dissemination, outreach, 
publications, and fund raising. Donor/sponsor-designated funds provide 
support for costs related to programs and projects such as scientific research, 
and costs related to the Smithsonian Photography Initiative. For example, the 
Seward Johnson endowment fund is used to improve basic support and 
strengthen important research efforts carried out at marine stations, and for 
pursuing scientific opportunities in oceanographic research. 



211 



OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


1 1 


1,710 


1 


256 














FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


17 


2,052 


2 


351 














FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


20 


2,422 


2 


351 















STRATEGIC GOAL: ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Management Operations 














Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer 
centered and results oriented 


17 


2,052 


20 


2,422 


3 


370 


Total 


17 


2,052 


20 


2,422 


3 


370 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Inspector General Act requires the Office of the Inspector General 
(OIG) to conduct and supervise audits and investigations relating to programs 
and operations of the Smithsonian Institution that are, in the judgment of the 
IG, necessary or desirable. 

The OIG fulfills its mandate by conducting administrative and criminal 
investigations and engaging in audits and reviews of Smithsonian Institution 
operations and programs. The OlG's audits include annually required reports, 
such as the quality assurance review of the external auditor's financial 
statement audit and the Federal Information Security Management Act 
(FISMA) review. The OIG also conducts annual reviews of executive 
compensation and expenses, and reviews other areas listed in its audit 
inventory. 



212 



For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of $57,000 for 
necessary pay for existing staff funded under this line item, and a program 
increase of 3 FTEs and $313,000 to hire two auditors and one junior-level 
investigator or investigative analyst. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

The resources requested will be used to fund salaries, benefits, and 
support costs for staff engaged in audits, investigations, and other activities 
necessary to accomplish the OIG's mission. To balance its oversight 
responsibility with available resources, the OIG will continue to select areas 
for evaluation that: 

• are the focus of congressional and executive branch attention; 

• have high public interest and/or large dollar outlays; 

• figure prominently in the Smithsonian's strategic plans and annual 
performance plans and reports; or 

• have known performance and accountability or high-risk issues 

The OIG's audit inventory for FY 2009 includes: travel and other 
expenses of Smithsonian executives; the modernization of the information 
technology (IT) infrastructure and development of IT investment strategies; 
the contracting practices of Smithsonian Business Ventures (SBV); 
collections information systems; the effectiveness of the Institution's 
processes for identifying, measuring, and managing risk; and the status of 
human capital and workforce restructuring efforts. In addition, the OIG will 
oversee the FY 2009 financial statement audit; conduct the annual FISMA 
review; and assist the Treasury Department and the Government 
Accountability Office in preparing Government-wide financial statements and 
performing agreed-upon procedures to explain material differences in intra- 
Governmental activity balances and related internal control deficiencies. 

The investigative staff will continue to conduct investigations and 
criminal prosecutions, resolve complaints, and proactively engage the 
Institution's staff to detect and prevent waste, fraud, and abuse. 

In addition, the OIG will continue to focus on high-risk, high-dollar 
areas, and to respond to requests for audits and reviews from the Board of 
Regents, the Secretary, and the Congress. The OIG will also continue to 
maintain a substantial inventory of areas identified as needing audit work. 



213 



STRATEGIC GOAL AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Strengthen an institutional culture that is customer centered and 
results oriented (20 FTEs and $2,422,000) 

• Conduct reviews of Smithsonian executives' expenses to help ensure 
that the Institution is using its assets prudently and solely for the 
benefit of its mission 

• Assess the Institution's IT investment strategies and determine 
whether 1) the Chief Information Officer has implemented sound 
strategies and practices for managing IT resources and meeting 
program area information needs, and 2) the IT infrastructure is 
being sufficiently modernized to support the activities of the 
Institution 

• Determine whether SBV's contracting policies and procedures are 
in line with industry best practices, and whether SBV contracts are 
sufficiently competed to maximize revenues 

• Examine a sample of the most expensive exhibits to determine if 
museum management adequately tracks exhibition-related 
expenses and financing, reasonably estimates the life-cycle costs 
of exhibitions, and identifies risks and sources of contingent funds 
when budgets are not met 

• Determine whether opportunities exist to increase public access to 
collections information and enhance the state of collections 
information management, while at the same time reducing 
infrastructure and maintenance costs 

• Evaluate the Institution's metrics process for measuring and 
tracking risk. Review management's effectiveness in 1) identifying 
and measuring risks and vulnerabilities, 2) evaluating and 
monitoring corrective action plans, and 3) providing alternatives 
and resources to eliminate the vulnerabilities and minimize the risks 

• Assess the effectiveness of the Institution's motor vehicle fleet 
management 

• Examine the Institution's progress in implementing human capital 
initiatives recommended by the Human Resources Research 
Organization 

• Ensure that the Institution complies with FISMA requirements 

• Provide oversight for the external auditors' annual financial 
statement audit 



214 



FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of 3 FTEs and 
$370,000. This amount includes an increase of $57,000 for necessary pay 
for existing staff funded under this line item, and 3 FTEs and $313,000 to 
hire two auditors and one junior-level investigator or investigative analyst. 
The increases are as follows: 



• 



( + $220,600, +2 FTEs) Hire two staff auditors to support reviews of 
capital spending, facilities revitalization, IT modernization, executive 
expenses and compensation, and other high-risk areas 

• ( + $92,400, +1 FTE) Hire one junior-level investigator to reduce the 
backlog of investigations and engage in proactive waste and fraud 
reduction efforts 

The additional three positions will improve the OIG's ability to serve as 
the "gatekeeper" that the Governance Committee of the Board of Regents 
and the Independent Review Committee have recognized that the Institution 
requires. 

If the FY 2009 request is not allowed, the OIG will be hampered in its 
ability to serve as the statutorily mandated, independent, and objective 
Office that helps ensure the integrity, efficiency, and effectiveness of the 
Institution's programs and operations. The OIG will be unable to perform 
critical oversight of IT modernization and project management, review 
financial system upgrades and controls, and prevent the backlog of audit 
work in high-risk areas from continuing to expand. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES — General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits of personnel and other related costs. 



215 



FACILITIES MAINTENANCE 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOVT GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


307 


50,998 





75 





36 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


307 


51,419 





75 





36 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


359 


69,146 





75 





18 









STRATEGIC GOAL: ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


\\ 2009 


Change 


FTE ! $000 


FTE $000 


FTE J $000 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Implement an aggressive and professional 
maintenance program 


300 


47,895 


352 


64,615 


52 


16,720 


Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers 


7 


3,524 


7 


4,531 





1,007 


Total 


307 


51,419 


359 


69,146 


52 


17,727 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

Facilities Maintenance focuses on facility preservation activities and 
encompasses the upkeep of property and equipment, or the work necessary 
to realize the originally anticipated useful life of a fixed asset. The Office of 
Facilities Engineering and Operations (OFEO) is responsible for the 
maintenance and repair of an infrastructure of approximately 12 million 
square feet of owned and leased buildings and structures, including 19 
museums and galleries, nine research centers, and the National Zoological 
Park (NZP). The buildings and structures range from the well-known 
museums to supporting structures such as guard booths, animal shelters, 
and hay barns. 



216 



The National Research Council (NRC) recommends that annual 
maintenance funding total 2 to 4 percent of the physical plant replacement 
value. The Institution's FY 2008 replacement value is conservatively 
estimated at $5.3 billion. This equates to a minimum required funding of 
approximately $100 million for maintenance and minor repair projects. These 
requirements have been validated through the Facility Condition Assessment 
process and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) analysis, and were 
reviewed by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in 2005 and in 
2007. Additionally, as new and renovated museums and major exhibitions 
open, maintenance requirements rise dramatically due to technological 
advances and the increased number of systems supporting the Smithsonian's 
infrastructure. 

In its April 2005 and September 2007 reports to Congress, the GAO 
formally recognized the deteriorating condition of Smithsonian buildings and 
cited the seriously underfunded maintenance program as one of the principal 
causes. The GAO reports reviewed the findings of the 2001 National 
Academy of Public Administration's report and found that current funding 
does not meet requirements. 

Most of the current maintenance funding is consumed with day-to-day 
emergencies and unplanned repairs created by insufficient maintenance. The 
quality, effectiveness, and longevity of repairs are compromised by the need 
to stretch inadequate resources to meet overwhelming needs. The FY 2009 
budget increase for maintenance will help to address the accelerated 
degradation of building systems and components in order to decrease capital 
repair costs. 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of 52 FTEs and 
$17,727,000. This increase includes $952,000 for necessary pay for 
existing staff as well as 52 FTEs and $16,775,000 to support vital 
maintenance contracts, as well as maintenance and repair projects in support 
of the Smithsonian's most critical systems. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To support the Institution's goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, 
OFEO continues an aggressive, long-range facilities maintenance and minor 
repair program, using an RCM approach that includes benchmarking efforts 
with organizations such as the Association of Higher Education Facilities 
Officers (APPA). RCM is a widely accepted maintenance industry philosophy 
that incorporates a cost-effective mix of predictive, proactive, preventive, 
and reactive maintenance practices. Benchmarking efforts resulted in a 
staffing goal to achieve APPA's recommended level-2 standard for building 



217 



maintenance (1 to 5 rating scale with 1 being the highest), referred to as 
"Comprehensive Stewardship." The "Comprehensive Stewardship" level of 
maintenance will ensure that equipment and building components are in 
operating condition; that sufficient staffing is in place to respond to 
maintenance calls in a timely manner; and that electrical and mechanical 
systems are routinely tested and upgraded. 

With increased funding in FY 2009, the Institution can approach 
APPA's level 2 "Comprehensive Stewardship" service. OFEO will continue its 
efforts to achieve the full staffing level of "Comprehensive Stewardship" 
because it is no less than what should be expected at the world's largest and 
most visited museum complex. 

Additionally, OFEO will continue providing protection for the 
Institution's facilities, collections, staff, visitors, and volunteers through 
state-of-the-art physical security measures. Requested resources in FY 2009 
will enable OFEO to maintain and repair physical security systems throughout 
the Institution, and ensure that all security monitoring systems are 
maintained at the same levels. 

In FY 2007, the Institution completed a Program Assessment Rating 
Tool (PART) evaluation of the facilities Operations and Maintenance Program. 
The Institution received the highest PART rating score, which confirms the 
Government Accountability Office's conclusion that the maintenance 
program is effectively managed and, if properly resourced, will achieve long- 
term results in improving the Institution's essential infrastructure. 

STRATEGIC GOAL AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Implement an aggressive and professional maintenance program 
(352 FTEs and $64,615,000) 

• Ensure that planned maintenance costs remain at 55 percent of total 
maintenance costs 

• Maintain temperature and relative humidity levels within the target 
range 80 percent of the time 

• Ensure that critical electrical power is available 99.9 percent of the 
time 

• Ensure that meantime between repairs of vertical transportation units 
is more than 70 days 

Provide world-class protection for Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers (7 FTEs and $4,531,000) 

• Ensure that physical security protection systems operate as intended 
99 percent of the time 



218 



• Complete 100 percent construction of the perimeter barrier project at 
the National Museum of American History 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes an increase of 52 FTEs and 
$17,727,000. This amount includes $952,000 for necessary pay for existing 
staff, and 52 FTEs and $16,775,000 to support new facility maintenance 
requirements, Institution-wide maintenance and minor repair projects and 
contracts, and physical security maintenance requirements. The increases 
are as follows: 

• ( + $13,690,000, +34 FTEs) Funding is requested to approach APPA's 
level 2, "Comprehensive Stewardship," and begin to fully implement RCM 
methodologies. The requested funds provide $4,549,000 to support the 
maintenance and minor repair projects throughout the Institution and 
$6,297,000 for contracts, supplies, materials, and equipment to support 
other general maintenance requirements. In addition, $2,844,000 and 
34 FTEs will support staff salaries and benefits for maintenance of 
building systems, plumbing requirements, window repairs, sheet-metal 
repairs, and inspection of fire and life-safety equipment throughout the 
Smithsonian, as follows: 



Title 


Grade 


FTEs 


Amount 


General Engineers 


GS-13 


2 


248,000 


Engineering Technicians 


GS-12 


2 


208,000 


Construction Representatives 


GS-12 


2 


208,000 


Utilities Systems Repair 
Operators 


WG-11 


18 


1,422,000 


Electrician 


WG-11 


1 


79,000 


Machinist 


WG-11 


1 


79,000 


Painters 


WG-10 


5 


375,000 


Carpenter 


WG-10 


1 


75,000 


Mason 


WG-10 


1 


75,000 


Pipefitter 


WG-10 


1 


75,000 


Total 




34 


$2,844,000 



( + $250,000) This increase provides for additional contract support at 
leased space in Herndon, Virginia, which houses the Institution's 
information technology data center. The funding will ensure that most of 
the building system maintenance will be performed using RCM 
methodology. 



219 



• ( + $ 1 ,327,000, + 1 4 FTEs) This increase supports the monitoring and 
performance of preventive maintenance on new building systems at the 
DWRC Courtyard enclosure and Pod 5 at the Museum Support Center to 
ensure optimum performance and extend the useful life of these critical 
building systems. The request provides for salaries and benefits for one 
GS-12 assistant building manager ($104,000), 10 WG-1 1 utilities 
systems repair operators ($790,000), and three WG-1 1 maintenance 
mechanics ($237,000); and supplies and materials ($196,000). 

• ( + $558,000, +4 FTEs) This increase supports the NZP Asia Trail 
facilities to ensure that critical building systems are maintained to strict 
maintenance protocols, and that electrical systems are routinely 
inspected, tested, and maintained according to code. Funding will support 
the salaries and benefits of three WG-1 1 utilities systems repair operators 
($237,000) and one WG-1 1 electrician ($79,000); as well as supplies, 
materials, and equipment ($242,000). 

• ( + $400,000) This increase fully funds security system maintenance 
contracts to ensure that all security systems are properly maintained at 
the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), Steven F. Udvar- 
Hazy Center, the NZP, the National Postal Museum, and the DWRC in the 
same manner as other Smithsonian security systems. This will ensure the 
safety and security of staff, visitors, and collections. 

• ( + $250,000) This increase funds maintenance contracts for the newly 
installed vehicle bollard security systems at the NMAI, National Air and 
Space Museum, National Museum of Natural History, and the National 
Museum of American History. These automated systems require 
substantial routine preventive maintenance to ensure their long-term 
operability and to minimize downtime. Funding will ensure continual 
operations and minimize security and safety risks. 

• ( + $300,000) This increase provides for locksmith contractor services to 
supplement in-house staff due to increased requirements from new and 
renovated facilities. Funds will be used to secure and maintain locks, 
vaults, safes, and critical collection storage areas at all Smithsonian 
locations. These contract services will also ensure that exhibit cases are 
secure and artifacts are protected. 

If the FY 2009 request is not allowed, base funds will be inadequate 
to arrest the deteriorating condition of the Smithsonian's buildings and 
supporting infrastructure, thereby endangering the collections and placing 
staff and visitors' health and safety at increased risk. Furthermore, the 
quality, effectiveness, and longevity of repairs will be further compromised 



220 



by the need to stretch existing resources to meet overwhelming needs. The 
Smithsonian's ability to maintain more reliable mechanical equipment, reduce 
energy usage, and improve the environment to safeguard the National 
Collections, staff, and visitors will be severely impaired. This may result in 
unacceptable environmental issues such as increased mold and microbe 
proliferation, indoor air-quality problems, and potential and real hazards to 
staff and visitors. Lastly, the long-term implications of a continuing shortfall 
in maintenance funding include: 

• potential damage to the collections, and higher risk of theft or damage, 
due to the Institution's inability to provide a safe and secure environment 
for their preservation 

• potential damage to buildings due to flooding and fire if critical protection 
systems fail 

• potential collateral injuries to the public and staff, with associated risks of 
litigation and adverse publicity 

• significant increases in energy costs as system efficiencies degrade 

• major increases to Facilities Capital Revitalization requirements 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits and other related costs. Donor/sponsor-designated funds 
provide support for costs related to Smithsonian programs, such as 
horticulture operations, architectural history, and historic preservation 
projects. 



221 



FACILITIES OPERATIONS, SECURITY, AND SUPPORT 





APPLICATION OF OPERATING RESOURCES 


FEDERAL 
APPROPRIATIONS 


GENERAL 
TRUST 


DONOR/SPONSOR- 
DESIGNATED 


GOV'T GRANTS 
& CONTRACTS 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FY 2007 
ACTUAL 


1,319 


167,082 


16 


6,259 


5 


442 








FY 2008 
ESTIMATE 


1,328 


177,290 


10 


3,900 


5 


410 








FY 2009 
ESTIMATE 


1,368 


183,745 


10 


3,900 


5 


317 









STRATEGIC GOALS: INCREASED PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND ENHANCED 

MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 

Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Performance Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Increased Public Engagement 














Exhibitions 














Offer compelling, first-class 

exhibitions 


8 


704 


8 


715 





11 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Improve the overall cleanliness and 
efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities 


411 


117,745 


411 


121,242 





3,497 


Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, 
staff, visitors, and volunteers 


869 


52,951 


909 


55,811 


40 


2,860 


Provide a safe and healthy 
environment to support Smithsonian 
programs 


40 


5,890 


40 


5,977 





87 


Total 


1,328 


177,290 


1,368 


183.745 


40 


6,455 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations (OFEO) plays a 
major role in helping the Smithsonian Institution achieve its complex mission 



222 



by providing a safe, secure, and quality-built environment that enables 
museum staff to provide exemplary exhibits to nearly 25 million visitors. 

The Facilities Operations, Security, and Support (OSS) program within 
OFEO operates, secures, and supports the Smithsonian's physical 
infrastructure. OFEO provides operational security and support services for 
approximately 12 million square feet of owned and leased facilities, including 
19 museums and galleries, nine research centers, and the National Zoological 
Park. 

Resources within OSS support facilities operations and include 
activities such as fire protection; building system operations; grounds care 
and landscaping; snow removal; pest control; refuse collection and disposal; 
custodial work; security services; and safety, environmental, and health 
services. Resources also support facilities planning, architectural/engineering 
design plans, as well as postage, utilities, and central rent costs. 

For FY 2009, the budget estimate includes an increase of 40 FTEs and 
$6,455,000. This amount includes $2,644,000 for necessary pay for 
existing staff funded under this line item; $1 ,771 ,000 for utilities, postage, 
and rent, which are justified in the Mandatory Costs section of this budget; 
and a programmatic increase of 40 FTEs and $2,810,000 for security 
support, offset by a reduction (-$770,000) for non-recurring costs in 
FY 2008. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

To achieve the Institution's goal of Increased Public Engagement, 
OFEO will continue to develop exhibits and other public programs related to 
horticulture, architectural history, and historic preservation. 

To achieve the goal of Enhanced Management Excellence, OFEO's 
resources will be focused on meeting the growing operational requirements 
of the Institution's facilities. OFEO has benchmarked the Institution's 
custodial staffing levels with other museums and professional organizations, 
including the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA). In 
2006, the Institution received the prestigious Award of Excellence from 
APPA in recognition of OFEO's excellence in facilities management, and its 
efforts to establish measurable performance standards and staffing levels for 
appearance and cleanliness, and efficient operations. Ultimately, the 
Institution intends to achieve APPA's appearance level 2, which is referred to 
as "Ordinary Tidiness." This level of appearance will provide an acceptable 
level of cleanliness that meets public expectations. In FY 2008, OFEO will 
only approach appearance level 3, "Casual Inattention." Although this level 



223 



of appearance is not totally acceptable, it will ensure a generally clean and 
odorless environment. 

OFEO will also use base resources to continue providing protection for 
the facilities, staff, and volunteers, while also permitting an appropriate level 
of access to the National Collections. The Institution will continue to focus on 
security measures required to address elevated risks identified in the All- 
Hazard Risk Assessment conducted in 2006. Increased resources in FY 2009 
will be used to continue implementing operational security measures to ensure 
that proper access controls and background/screening measures are 
implemented for all employees, contractors, and volunteers, as well as to 
ensure that the newly opened Donald W. Reynolds Center (DWRC) and the 
National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Mall Museum are adequately 
staffed. 

In addition, OFEO will continue using base resources to provide a safe 
and healthy environment for the Institution's staff by concentrating its 
efforts on reducing occupational injuries and illnesses. 

STRATEGIC GOALS AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Increased Public Engagement 

Offer compelling, first- class exhibitions at Smithsonian museums and 
across the nation (8 FTEs and $715,000) 

• Present academic lectures and tours relating to the history of the 
oldest Smithsonian facilities 

• Complete installation of the 2009 orchid exhibit by January 2009 

• Conduct a visitor survey of the 2009 orchid exhibit and compare 
results to previous exhibit surveys in an effort to improve visitors' 
experiences and help develop future exhibits 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Improve the overall cleanliness and efficient operation of Smithsonian 
facilities (411 FTEs and $121,242,000) 

• Maintain cleanliness improvements achieved in FY 2008 and 
continue to improve operational efficiencies, cost and quality 
controls, and accountability 

• Maintain a 95 percent rate of response to work requests that are 
within established time limits (i.e., 30 minutes for emergencies and 
two weeks for regular work requests) 

• Maintain at 85 percent the percentage of work orders that are 
completed within 120 days 



224 



Provide world-class protection for Smithsonian facilities, collections, 
staff, visitors, and volunteers (909 FTEs and $55,811,000) 

• Maintain crime rate for non-collection property at less than 7 
crimes per million visitors, while ensuring that the crime rate for 
staff and visitors is not more than one crime per million visitors 

• Ensure that the crime rate for intentional loss/damage to collections 
remains at zero 

• Ensure that all new employees, all volunteers, and 70 percent of 
contractors have appropriate background investigations 

Provide a safe and healthy environment to support Smithsonian 
programs (40 FTEs and $5,977,000) 

• Reduce occurrences of deficiencies/hazards that can cause serious 
injury and/or illness (Risk Assessment Code 1 and 2 findings) by 10 
percent from the previous year to progress toward achieving a 
zero-injury goal 

• Reduce occupational injuries and illnesses by 18 percent from the 
FY 2003 baseline 

• Support an Occupational Health Risk Management Program aimed 
at reaching 10 percent of employees Institution-wide 

• Achieve a 12 percent reduction in lost production day costs 
through injury and illness prevention and wellness programs 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The FY 2009 budget estimate includes a net increase of 40 FTEs and 
$6,455,000. This amount includes an increase of $2,644,000 for necessary 
pay for existing staff funded under this line item, and $1 ,771 ,000 for 
utilities, postage, and rent, which are justified in the Mandatory Costs 
section of this budget. Also included is a programmatic increase of 40 FTEs 
and $2,810,000 for additional security guards and to ensure Sl-wide security 
improvements. Offsetting the increases is a reduction (-$770,000) for non- 
recurring costs in FY 2008. The programmatic increases, and offsetting 
decrease, are as follows: 

• ( + $2,004,000, +40 FTEs) This increase provides funding for an 

additional 40 security guards at the DWRC and NMAI to ensure at least 
minimal security staffing at these facilities. Specifically, an additional 17 
FTEs are requested to provide the minimal security staffing of 68 FTEs for 
the newly opened DWRC ($816,000). An additional 23 FTEs are 
requested to provide the minimal security staffing of 60 FTEs at the 
NMAI Mall Museum ($1,104,000). One-time funding of $84,000 will 
provide for the purchase of uniforms, security supplies, and materials. 



225 



( + $400,000) This increase will support contractor services and 
equipment to complete implementation of and provide maintenance for 
the Institution's credentialing and personnel security systems, which were 
started in FY 2008 to ensure compliance with Homeland Security 
Presidential Directive 12 (HSPD-12) and internal audits of the Inspector 
General. The requested funding provides for maintenance contract 
support for the Homeland Security database; and for the expansion of the 
credentialing and personnel security databases to New York City, 
Panama, Hawaii, Arizona, and Massachusetts, while integrating the 
databases with the Institution's human resources systems and ensuring 
that routine system maintenance is performed. 

( + $406,000) This increase provides $406,000 for the Department of 
Homeland Security's (DHS) Federal Protective Service (FPS) security 
services, including the cost of five contract guards, maintenance of 
capital equipment, and basic facility charges. DHS/FPS provides security 
services to the Custom House in New York City, a General Services 
Administration-owned building that houses the NMAI's George Gustav 
Heye Center. As a result of the terrorist attacks on September 1 1 , 2001 , 
DHS/FPS increased security services at the building. A proposed 
agreement among FPS, the Smithsonian, and other tenants will replace 
FPS-contracted guards with Smithsonian security guards and court 
security officers, resulting in significant cost savings for the tenants of 
the Custom House. The requested funds pay the charges that NMAI has 
been assessed, as one of the tenants, for security costs associated with 
areas not monitored by the Smithsonian's security guards. 

(-$770,000) Returns one-time FY 2008 funds for necessary expenses to 
implement the mandates of the HSPD-12 for a common identification 
standard ($-570,000), and funding for background investigations for 
existing contractors and volunteers (-$200,000). 

If the FY 2009 request is not allowed, OFEO will not be able to 
continue implementing HSPD-12 requirements, properly conduct background 
investigations, and adequately staff the DWRC and NMAI, thereby leaving 
the Institution and its assets vulnerable to potential theft and/or terrorist 
attacks. 

NONAPPROPRIATED RESOURCES - General trust funds support salaries 
and benefits and other related costs. Donor/sponsor-designated funds 
provide for costs related to Smithsonian programs, such as horticulture 
operations and architectural history and historic preservation projects. 



226 



• 



FACILITIES CAPITAL 



FY 2007 Appropriation 


$98,554,760 


FY 2008 Estimate 


$105,429,240 


FY 2009 Estimate 


$128,000,000 



STRATEGIC GOAL: ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


Change 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Enhanced Management Excellence 














Facilities 














Execute an aggressive, long-range 
revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities 


48 


84,209 


48 


102,312 





18,103 


Security and Safety 














Provide world-class protection for 
Smithsonian facilities, collections, staff, 
visitors, and volunteers 





8,840 





5,230 





-3,610 


Provide a safe and healthy environment 





12,380 





20,458 





8,078 


Total 


48 


105,429 


48 


128,000 





22,571 



BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Facilities Capital Program underpins the Smithsonian's mission 
and represents a vital investment in the long-term interest of the nation. It is 
intended to provide modern facilities that satisfy public programming needs 
and facilitate world-renowned research efforts. However, many years of 
insufficient investment in both facilities capital and maintenance have led to 
growing, widespread deterioration and increasingly impaired performance of 
the Institution's physical plant. 

The professional engineering study, Smithsonian Institution Museums 
and Facilities: Critical Assessment and Improvement Objectives, published in 
2001, established a 10-year, $1.5 billion requirement for capital revitalization 
of Smithsonian facilities. The National Academy of Public Administration 
(NAPA) study of that same year supported these findings, and the 
Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports of April 2005 and 
September 2007 confirmed that $2.5 billion (in FY 2007 dollars) is required 



227 



for revitalization, construction, and maintenance in the coming decade. This 
amount includes requirements for anti-terrorism modifications and 
maintenance that were not addressed during the NAPA study. Funding levels 
of the past few years have allowed the Smithsonian to make some progress 
against this requirement. Without question, there is an urgent need for major 
investment so that the Smithsonian can escape the current, never-ending 
crises of costly, unforeseen, breakdown repairs. Without sufficient capital 
support, the Institution will eventually fail in its mission. 

MEANS AND STRATEGY 

The FY 2009 budget request for the Facilities Capital Program 
represents a significant investment in the goal of Enhanced Management 
Excellence, with an increase of $22.6 million from the FY 2008 level. With 
funding in the Facilities Capital Program, the Institution will focus on 
improving the safety and security of visitors, staff, volunteers, and 
collections, and will make incremental progress toward returning to and then 
sustaining Smithsonian facilities at a fully functional level in the next decade. 

The Critical Assessment study records the full breadth of the 
commitment that must be made to preserve the physical plant of the 
Smithsonian and position it for the 21st century. It is a compilation of the 
knowledge learned from more than 200 architect-engineer consultant 
investigations and internal condition assessments. The facilities requirements 
known at this time fall into two major areas, both of which are essential: 
facilities capital and facilities maintenance. 

The Facilities Capital Program entails both construction and 
revitalization activities; however, there are no major capital construction 
funds requested for this year's budget. Revitalization involves making major 
repairs or replacing declining and failed infrastructure to address the causes 
of advanced deterioration. Once completed, these projects will enable the 
Smithsonian to avoid the crippling failures in building systems that can create 
hazardous conditions for visitors and staff, harm animals, damage 
collections, and cause the irretrievable loss of precious scientific data. 

Funding for facilities routine maintenance and minor repairs is included 
in the Institution's Salaries and Expenses request. These resources are 
critical to realize the intended design life and full economic value of 
Smithsonian facilities and protect the Institution's investment in 
revitalization. Underfunding maintenance devalues the Institution's capital 
investment by prematurely shifting increased costs to the Facilities Capital 
Program. 



228 



The Institution plans to use these combined resources during the next 
decade to arrest the downward spiral of deterioration and provide for safe, 
code-compliant, and functional facilities that support Smithsonian programs. 
Adequate future funding to meet both requirements is essential to sustain the 
viability of the Institution's physical plant. 

The Institution completed a Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) 
evaluation of the Facilities Capital Program during FY 2005 and received the 
highest PART rating score. This rating confirms the NAPA and GAO 
conclusions that these programs are effectively managed and, if fully funded, 
will achieve long-term results in improving the Institution's essential 
infrastructure. 

STRATEGIC GOAL AND FY 2009 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE GOALS 

Enhanced Management Excellence 

Execute an aggressive, long-range revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities to ensure appropriate facilities in 
excellent condition that support the Smithsonian mission (48 FTEs and 
$102,312,000) 

• Improve the Facilities Condition Index (FCI) of Smithsonian 
buildings 

• Complete 75 percent of the construction of the new holding facility 
and habitats 2 and 3 for Asia Trail Phase II, Elephant Trails, at the 
National Zoological Park 

• Complete 50 percent of structural repairs to the General Services 
Building, and 30 percent of Seal/Sea Lion life-support system 
renewal 

• Complete design of the garage infill project and initiate design for 
revitalization of the West Wing public space at the National 
Museum of American History (NMAH)-Kenneth E. Behring Center 

• Complete revitalization of the West Wing basement, East Court 
basement and first floor, and Main Building tunnels; 80 percent of 
the West Wing ground floor; and 10 percent of window 
replacement at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) 

• Complete 60 percent of the renovation of Pod 3 at the Museum 
Support Center 

• Complete 80 percent of the electrical system replacement at the 
National Air and Space Museum 

• Complete construction of replacement greenhouses at Suitland, 
Maryland 

• Initiate construction of the laboratory facilities and site utilities 
infrastructure in Gamboa, Panama 



229 



• Complete planning/programming for the National Museum of 
African American History and Culture; begin initial design work 

Provide world-class protection for Smithsonian facilities, collections, 
staff, visitors, and volunteers ($5,230,000) 

• Complete 75 percent of the construction of the permanent 
perimeter security barriers at the NMAH 

Provide a safe and healthy environment ($20,458,000) 

• Complete critical fire-protection improvements at the National 
Zoological Park 

• Complete 80 percent of the replacement of fire-protection systems 
at the Museum Support Center and complete replacement at other 
Smithsonian facilities 

• Complete 30 percent of installation of backflow prevention valves 
at all Smithsonian buildings in the Washington, DC metropolitan 
area 

FY 2009 REQUEST - EXPLANATION OF CHANGE 

The Institution requests $128,000,000 and 48 FTEs for the Facilities 
Capital Program in FY 2009 for Revitalization, and the Planning and Design 
funding needed to support these and future projects. This amount will enable 
the Smithsonian to keep pace with the NAPA-recommended and GAO- 
reviewed schedules for eliminating the current backlog of revitalization 
requirements by applying resources to complete the most critical design and 
revitalization work. Projects at the Zoo will be guided by the nearly complete 
master plan to correct the deteriorating conditions there. This request also 
recognizes the need to sustain progress in other priority areas, which include 
revitalizing the NMNH and the NMAH. Several emerging priorities are also 
represented, including the need to address serious deficiencies in collection 
storage conditions, and to renovate or replace research and support facilities 
to protect the viability of ongoing operations. 

If this request is not allowed, the Institution's facilities will continue to 
deteriorate, increasing the eventual cost of revitalization and the risk of 
further building closures. 

The chart that follows summarizes the Institution's request for the 
highest priority projects for FY 2009, and the related future program 
requirements through FY 2013. 



230 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
Federal Facilities Capital Program Summary 

FY 2009 - FY 2017 











Congress 




Future Program 




CA TEGORY 

SM/l/ions 




Received 




Request 












FY 2006 


FY 2007 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


FY 2010 


FY 2011 


FY 2012 


FY 2013 


FY 2014-17 


REVITALIZA TION 




















Major Projects 




















Arts & Industries Building 


5.8 
















TBD 


Greenhouse Replacement 






2.8 


8.2 












Hirshhorn Museum 














7.3 




18.5 


Museum Support Center 






10.0 


15.0 


15.0 




6.5 


6.5 


6.5 


National Air and Space Museum 




1.5 


6.8 












50.0 


National Museum of American History 


18.1 


13.5 








20.0 


27.0 


27.0 


100.0 


National Museum of Natural History 


12.8 


25.4 


22.5 


25.7 


32.0 


30.0 


30.0 


30.0 


40.0 


National Zoological Park 


13.8 


16.0 


18.8 


21.1 


28.8 


19.8 


25.1 


15.6 


172.7 


Quadrangle 


















64.5 


Renwick Gallery 


















25.0 


Donald W. Reynolds Center 




















Suitland Collection Center 


















24.0 


Smithsonian Castle 
















33.0 


122.0 


STRI, Gamboa 






1.5 


3.0 


11.0 










Udvar-Hazy Center 


















5.0 


Anti-Terrorism Protection 


7.9 




8.0 




5.3 


27.7 


16.8 


20.0 


35.9 


Other devitalization Projects 


14.4 


26.3 


20.5 


31.5 


31.8 


34.2 


33.6 


16.5 


78.5 


SUBTOTAL 


72.8 


82.7 


90.9 


104.5 


123.9 


131.7 


146.3 


148.6 


742.6 


CONSTRUCTION 




















NMNH, Museum Support Center Pod 5 


17.8 


5.4 
















SAO, VERITAS Site Improvements 




















SERC, Construction Mathias Lab Modules 










12.0 


25.0 








National Museum of African American 














TBD 


TBD 


223.0 


History & Culture 




















NZP, General Services Building Expansion 
















10.0 


10.0 


Other Future Construction 


















112.5 


SUBTOTAL 


17.8 


5.4 


0.0 


0.0 


12.0 


25 


0.0 


10.0 


345.5 


FACILITIES PLANNING & DESIGN 


7.9 


10.5 


14.5 


23.5 


33.5 


33.9 


22.5 


11.4 


75.4 


TOTAL REQUEST 


98.5 


98.6 


105.4 


128.0 


169.4 


190.6 


168.8 


170.0 


1,163.5 



231 



SUMMARY TABLES AND PROJECT SHEETS 
REVITALIZATION 

Major Projects 

This investment provides for the replacement of failing or failed major 
building systems and equipment, and for major renovation projects to 
preserve the buildings. It primarily includes the exterior envelope, HVAC, 
electrical, and other utility systems at the older buildings. Projects also entail 
modifications to ensure compliance with life-safety and Americans with 
Disabilities Act (ADA) codes, restoration of historic features, and 
modernization of the buildings to support current program requirements. 
Major projects are generally those that cost more than $5 million. 



Facility 

Museum Support Center 

National Museum of 

Natural History 
National Zoological Park 



Suitland Support Facility 
Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute 



Project $(000) 

Renovate Pod 3, Collections Storage 15,000 

Improvements 
Revitalize Public and Non-Public Space 25,700 

Upgrade Fire Suppression, Life-Safety & 7,600 

Infrastructure 
Repair Structural Systems, General 4,500 

Services Building 
Roof/Exterior Replacement and Repair 2,000 

Renew Seal/Sea Lion Facility, Phase I: 7,000 

Life-Support Systems 
Replace Greenhouses 8,200 

Replace Gamboa Laboratory Facilities and 3,000 

Upgrade Utility Infrastructure 



TOTAL MAJOR PROJECTS 



$73,000 



232 



Other Revitalization Projects 

These projects correct extensive and serious facilities deficiencies to 
materially extend the service life of systems. Unlike the major projects, these 
are smaller in scale, costing $5 million or less, and usually involve capital 
repair or replacement of individual systems or components. 



Facility 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 



Freer Gallery of Art 

National Museum of 
American History 
Quadrangle 
Suitland Support Facility 

Multiple Locations 



Project 

Upgrade Mansion Electrical Distribution 

and Lighting 
Asbestos Abatement 
Replace Roof 

Upgrade Humidification System 
Prevent Ground Water Infiltration into 

Lower Level 
Connect GSA Chilled Water System 
Replace Switchgear Controllers/Switches 

at Museum Support Center 
Install Backflow Prevention/Fire Pumps 
Construction Supervision and 

Administration 
Misc. projects $500,000 and under 



TOTAL OTHER PROJECTS 



TOTAL REVITALIZATION 



$(000) 

4,625 
1,500 
1,275 
700 
2,900 

1,500 
1,100 

2,100 
4,950 

10,850 

$31,500 

$104,500 



233 



PROJECT TITLE: Renovate Pod 3, Collections Storage Improvements 
INSTALLATION: Museum Support Center 
LOCATION: Suitland, Maryland 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): 

Renovate Pod 3 $15,000 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING : 

Design $2,500 

Construction $ 10,000 

Subtotal $12,500 $12,500 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010): $ 15,000 

Total $42,500 

BUILDING BACKGROUND: 

Designed and built in 1983, the modern, precast concrete center is a 
research, conservation, and collection storage facility providing optimum 
environments for the storage, preservation, and study of Smithsonian 
collections. The original 524,000-square-foot facility has four large collection 
storage bays, referred to as pods, and an office-laboratory complex. The 
1 20,000-square-foot fifth pod recently constructed provides code-compliant 
housing and laboratory space for natural history specimens stored in alcohol. 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 

Pod 3 was originally intended for the storage of natural history 
specimens preserved in alcohol. The National Museum of Natural History 
(NMNH) engaged in a lengthy design process to complete the installation of a 
steel collections storage structure in Pod 3; this was necessary as the pod 
was not constructed with intermediate floors in order to permit maximum 
flexibility. In the face of fire and life-safety codes and the needs of the 
collections, it became impractical to upgrade Pod 3 to meet the standards 
required for alcohol storage. The alcohol collections now in Pod 3 are being 
moved to the newly completed Pod 5. This will free up valuable space in Pod 
3 for the storage of other Smithsonian collections requiring high-quality 
environmental conditions and security, including physical anthropology 
collections, specimens needing cold storage or special gas storage, and art 
works. These collections are currently stored in substandard space in the 
museums and in leased space that does not meet climate control requirements 
for the long-term preservation of collections. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 

Pod 3 has a gross footprint of about 36,000 square feet. It contains an 
attached, interior, three-level (9,000-square-foot/level) structural system for 
collection storage, which covers one-third of the available floor space and is 
being used to store part of the NMNH wet alcohol collection. The revitalization 

234 



of Pod 3 will include demolishing the inefficient interior three-level structural 
system, all electrical equipment, and all existing sprinkler piping systems, and 
reconfiguration to provide additional collection storage for NMNH (36,000 
square feet) and art collections for multiple art museums (36,000 square feet). 
The space will be divided into two permanent floors with separate areas for 
each collection type, with a new mechanical system independent from the rest 
of the building to provide appropriate environmental conditions for each space. 
The new space will meet all current fire codes, with a 2-hour fire rating for 
floor slabs and fire walls, and new fire-detection and suppression systems. 
The Institution requests $15 million in FY 2009 to complete the renovation, 
and will request funding in future years to purchase storage equipment and 
move the collections into the building. 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 



The Institution is designing the project with funding received in FY 2007, 
and plans to award the construction contract with $10 million received in 
FY 2008. 

IMPACT OF DELAY: 



Once the current collections stored in alcohol are moved from Pod 3 
into Pod 5, Pod 3 will become a one-floor storage area with inefficient space 
use and limited collections storage capability. Without the planned 
revitalization, the physical anthropology collections (now in NMNH) requiring 
special environmental conditions, and art collections (multiple leased 
locations), cannot be relocated out of currently inappropriate space. The result 
will be more rapid deterioration of collections items, higher security risks, and 
higher lease costs for the Institution. Failure to move collections from the 
NMNH will also delay the next major HVAC renovations of that building 
because work cannot be done with collections in those spaces. 



235 



PROJECT TITLE: Revitalize Public and Non-Public Space 
INSTALLATION: National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): 
Continue HVAC/Utility System Replacement 
and Building Renovation $25,700* 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING $177,070 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010-FY 2016) 
Ongoing HVAC replacement and code 

improvements $ 199,900 * 

Total $402,670 

* Does not include funding in Planning and Design account to complete future design of revitalization project. 

BUILDING BACKGROUND: 

The NMNH building opened to the public in 1910. The East and West 
wings were added in the early 1960s. Two infill buildings were constructed in 
the original building's East and West courtyards in the late 1990s. The gross 
interior square footage of the building is approximately one-and-a-half million 
square feet. The building includes 300,000 square feet of public museum 
space, with collections, laboratory, office, and building services spaces filling 
the remaining one million square feet. The Museum typically hosts five to six 
million visitors annually, and is one of the most visited museums in the world. 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION : 

The building's mechanical and electrical systems were installed in the 
early 1960s, and are more than 40 years old, so they are in need of major 
renovations. Breakdowns of the mechanical system are frequent, repair parts 
are often difficult to procure, and the system does not provide the 
environmental air quality necessary for visitors on many crowded days, or for 
the display and preservation of Museum collections. The reliability of the 
electrical system is compromised by the deteriorated condition of the 
building's three main electrical switchgears, and the antiquated distribution 
system poses a safety hazard. In addition, a number of long-standing health 
and safety violations compromise the well-being of visitors and staff. Main 
stairwells and auditorium exit corridors are dark, violate building code, and are 
insufficiently served by smoke-evacuation fans. Dozens of building elevators 
constantly break down, occasionally trapping staff and visitors. Asbestos- 
laden pipes in the utility tunnels are a health hazard and hamper proper 
maintenance and response to utilities failures. The windows in the original 
portion of the building are severely deteriorated. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION : 

Based on the master implementation plan completed in 1987, the 
Institution is struggling to complete a comprehensive renovation program in 

236 



the NMNH building, which will replace the HVAC equipment, ductwork, 
electrical equipment and wiring, piping systems, and windows of the main 
building. Asbestos and lead will be abated or encapsulated; the fire-protection, 
communications, alarm, and emergency power systems will be upgraded; and 
stormwater systems and a hazardous-chemical control facility will be installed. 
To date, $177.0 million has been appropriated for the revitalization project. 
The total cost of renovating the NMNH is estimated to exceed $402 million 
through FY 2016 (at current funding levels). 

The Institution requests $25.7 million in FY 2009 to continue the 
renovation. Specific work will include: HVAC replacement and associated 
renovation of the ground and first floors of the West Wing ($1 6 million) and 
the basement, ground and first floor of the East Court ($3 million); continuing 
renovation of the passenger elevators ($3 million); replacement of the main 
building windows ($1 .2 million); renovation of the air towers ($0.5 million) to 
improve air quality; and upgrade of electronic security in collections storage 
areas ($2 million). 

PROGRESS TO DATE : 

Renovation of Halls 7-10 and 23-25 for the $24 million Ocean Hall 
exhibit funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA) is essentially complete, as is renovation of Halls 27-30 for the 
Butterfly Exhibit. Other construction recently started includes HVAC 
renovations of the West Wing basement, the southwest portion of the third 
floor of the Main Building, the west air tower, and Hall 1 2. Work will soon 
start on renovating 25 percent of the building's elevators. Design is nearing 
completion for other work planned for FY 2008, including the HVAC 
renovation of the West Wing basement, Phase II, the West Wing mechanical 
penthouse, the Main Building utility tunnels, and the emergency generator and 
high-voltage vault renovation. The space plan has been updated and a revised 
master plan is now complete. They form the basis for sequencing future 
infrastructure renovations. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

If funding is delayed, building systems will continue to deteriorate and 
fail, and environmental conditions required for the Museum's collections and 
the visiting public cannot be maintained. In addition, the Museum's exhibit re- 
installation program would not proceed according to the planned schedule, 
causing the continued prolonged closure of several important exhibition areas 
to the public. 



237 



PROJECT TITLE: Upgrade Fire Suppression, Life-Safety and Infrastructure 
INSTALLATION: National Zoological Park (NZP), Rock Creek Park and Front 

Royal 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $7,600 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING : $ 1 5,608 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010-FY 2013 + ): $41,750 

Total $64,958 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 

Much of NZP's current utility and fire-protection infrastructure is obsolete 
and failing, and does not meet the needs of the Zoo to protect and support its 
animals' safety. Correcting deficiencies in water service mains is crucial to 
provide critical fire-suppression systems in many of the unprotected areas of the 
Zoo, and to provide adequate water for the animals. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 



The Institution requests $7.6 million to install critical fire-protection and 
life-safety systems at both the Rock Creek Park and Front Royal, Virginia 
facilities, including fire systems in the Mammals, Reptiles, Think Tank, 
Amazonia, Boiler Plant, Visitor Center, General Services Building, and 
miscellaneous small buildings at Rock Creek ($6 million); animal-holding 
buildings at Front Royal ($0.1 million); and the final increment of replacement 
of the water main to the lower Zoo area to support future fire-sprinkler 
upgrades ($1.5 million). 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 



The Institution has used previous funds to upgrade the high-voltage 
electrical service for the upper section of the Rock Creek facility, including 
new transformers and a new ductbank, as well as conduits, electric feeders, 
and switchgear from Connecticut Avenue to the Elephant House. Funds were 
also used to upgrade the fire-protection water supply and install fire hydrants 
at the Bird House Hill and the Research Hospital Hill. Additional fire-alarm, 
smoke-detection, and fire-suppression systems in critical areas of the Rock 
Creek Park and Front Royal facilities will be designed by the end of FY 2008, 
and will be constructed in accordance with the 2006 utilities and fire- 
protection master plans. Smoke evacuation studies began in FY 2007 and 
smoke modeling for major animal buildings is under way. Based on 
recommendations from smoke models, phased design and construction could 
begin in 2010 to ensure that smoke can be quickly removed from animal 
buildings in the event of fire. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

A delay in completing this work would endanger the animals, visitors, 
and staff, and would hamper the care and safety of the live animal collections. 

238 



PROJECT TITLE: Repair Structural Systems, General Services Building 
INSTALLATION: National Zoological Park (NZP), Rock Creek Park 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $4,500 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING : 

Design $472 

Construction $985 * 

Subtotal: $1,457 $1,457 

Total $5,957 

* This amount reflects that $2.5 million of the $3.5 million appropriated in FY 2008 for the Zoo's General Services 
Building (GSB) is being used to complete two emergency projects at the Zoo, which are the installation of 
underground high-voltage cable ($1 .5 million) and renovation of the Marmoset Building ($1 million). The $985,000 
will complete the most immediately required repairs to the GSB. 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 



The General Services Building (GSB) houses numerous critical functions at 
NZP, including the animal nutrition commissary, the maintenance and repair 
shops, and offices for safety, horticulture, exhibits, project management, 
engineering design and construction staffs, as well as parking for staff and 
visitors. Recent studies identified critical structural deficiencies that, if not 
repaired, will cause structural failure and localized collapse. The structural 
deficiencies are responsible for the cracks in the foundation walls that allow 
water into the commissary, which was cited by the USDA in November 2005 as 
a deficiency requiring immediate attention. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 

This project will strengthen and repair structural deficiencies (e.g., 
cracked concrete, deteriorated steel reinforcement and degraded tie-back 
tension rods) in the General Services Building and in the retaining wall that 
supports the North Road, the major public and private thoroughfare through 
the Zoo. A total of $3.5 million was provided in FY 2008 to begin the repairs. 
A portion of this amount will be used to complete the most immediately 
required repairs to the General Services Building. An amount of $2.5 million 
will be moved to deal with two emergency projects at the Zoo: the installation 
of underground high-voltage cable ($1 .5 million) and the renovation of the 
Marmoset Building to relocate the Genetics Lab out of the current flood-prone 
building. The Institution requests $4.5 million in FY 2009 to complete the 
structural work required to bring the GSB up to code. 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 

Studies to assess the condition of the structure and to develop concept 
solutions were completed in 2005. Funding for design of the structural repairs 
was provided in FY 2006 through reprogramming of funds from the deferred 
Wetlands project. Design is now complete for immediate structural repairs 
(safety issues) where joints are failing and concrete is spalling around exposed 

239 



rebar. The Institution expects to begin these repairs in March 2008. Design for 
comprehensive structural stabilization is under way and will be completed by 
the end of FY 2008. The funds requested for FY 2009 will complete this 
work, which will allow the building to resist the load of the hillside by 
reinforcing foundations and walls to act as a "rigid structure." 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

Delay of the project will risk structural failure in the building and injury 
to staff or visitors. Deterioration of the building will accelerate, and the 
amount of intervention needed to correct the problems will increase and the 
costs will escalate. Until the work is completed, NZP will not be able to 
comply with the USDA requirement to stop water infiltration into the 
commissary. 



240 



PROJECT TITLE: Renew Facades, Roofs, and Skylights 
INSTALLATION: National Zoological Park (NZP), Rock Creek Park 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $2,000 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING : $12,331 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010) : $2,000 

Total $16,331 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 

The roofs, skylights, and facades of several major buildings have major 
leaks, causing interior damage and threatening the well-being of the animals 
and the research operations housed in the buildings. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 

A comprehensive study of Zoo roofs and exteriors, completed in 
FY 2005, identified and prioritized roof and facade repairs and renewals 
required now and over a 20-year renewal cycle. The Institution requests $2 
million in FY 2009 to complete the roof and exterior renovations at the 
Veterinary Hospital, Necropsy Building, Department Conservation Biology, 
Quarantine building, and the Property Yard Storage building. Funds will be 
requested in a future year to complete the remaining roofs in the current cycle, 
including the Boiler Plant, the Propagation facility, and the Lion/Tiger building. 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 

From earlier appropriations, the Smithsonian has completed renewing 
the facades, roofs, and skylights at the Elephant House, Small Mammal 
House, Amazonia Building, Great Ape Building and the Reptile Discovery 
Center. Extremely heavy rains during June 2006 caused flooding at Rock 
Creek and the Zoo barely averted a catastrophic flooding of the Genetics and 
Propagation Building. Such a flood would have caused several millions of 
dollars in damage to the genetics laboratory and equipment, and would have 
set back a number of world-class research projects many years. As a result of 
this near disaster, FY 2007 roof funds and $1 million of the Zoo's General 
Services Building renovation will be used to renew the Marmoset Building, 
including the facade and roof, in order to relocate the genetics laboratory to 
this building. During FY 2007, designs were completed for the projects 
planned for FY 2009. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

A delay in correcting the serious problems with the leaking facades, 
roofs, and skylights at the Zoo could endanger the animals and exacerbate the 
deterioration of building interiors and systems, as well as increase the cost of 
the work. 



241 



PROJECT TITLE: Renew Seal/Sea Lion Facility 

INSTALLATION: National Zoological Park, Rock Creek Park and Front Royal 

LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): 



Renew life-support systems $7,000 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING : 

Design life-support system renewal $947 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010-FY 2013): 

Revitalization of Remaining Facility Systems $20,000 

Total $27,947 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 

The Seal and Sea Lion exhibit is an exhibition anchor for the Beaver 
Valley. The 30,000-square-foot facility was built in 1978, and includes 
individual exhibit pools for seals and sea lions, separate holding pools for both 
species, and a large structure housing the life-support systems, maintenance, 
storage, and support operations. Age and technology advances have left the 
life-support systems and associated facilities in need of major revitalization so 
that current U.S. Department of Agriculture and Association of Zoos and 
Aquariums (AZA) standards for the care of marine mammals can be met. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 



This phased renewal project makes improvements and modifications to 
bring the facility into compliance with CFR Title 9, volume 1 — Specifications 
for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine 
Mammals. The Institution requests $7 million in FY 2009 for Phase 1, the 
renewal of the life-support systems. The work will include replacing 
deteriorated plumbing pipes and valves, upgrading deteriorated pumps and 
filters, and providing a new chemical treatment system to clean and control 
water quality. Phase 2 will revitalize the Seal and Sea Lion facility by 
reconfiguring holding pools, rehabilitating the large exhibit tanks, repairing the 
deteriorated rockwork and landscape, adding visitor amenities and addressing 
ADA concerns. Funds for this work will be requested in a future year. 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 

The Institution has completed 35 percent design for Phase I, and will 
complete design of Phase I and concept development of Phase 2 in FY 2008. 
Phase II design will be completed with funds included in the Facilities Planning 
and Design request for FY 2009. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

If the life-support system fails, the seals and sea lions would perish. If 
the life-support systems degrade further, the holding facility would be closed 
and the animals relocated to another AZA-approved institution. 

242 



PROJECT TITLE: Replace Greenhouses 
INSTALLATION: Suitland Support Facility 
LOCATION: Suitland, Maryland 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $8,200 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING: 

Planning $400 

Design/Construction $ 2,800 

Subtotal $3,200 $3,200 

Total $11,400 

BUILDING/SITE BACKGROUND : 

The Smithsonian has leased a 55,000-square-foot greenhouse complex 
for its horticultural operations on the property of the Armed Forces Retirement 
Home (AFRH) in northwest Washington, DC since 1974. The complex includes 
12 greenhouses, a headhouse for administrative and logistical functions, and a 
shade house. The complex houses the Institution's world-class orchid 
collection, and provides space to grow a wide variety of plant materials for 
exhibits, gardens, and special events, which would be costly or impossible to 
obtain commercially. 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION: 

The AFRH plans to lease the property where the greenhouse complex is 
currently located. AFRH could turn the site over to a developer as early as 
September 30, 2008, when the current lease expires, forcing the Smithsonian 
to acquire a new greenhouse facility. A thorough analysis of the horticulture 
program and greenhouse functions and operations determined that the most 
cost-effective method of maintaining the orchid collection and providing the 
needed plant materials is to replace the current greenhouses with a new 
facility at the Institution's Suitland, Maryland site. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: 



The proposed 55,000-square-foot facility will replace the existing 
complex with comparable administrative and growing space. Although the 
Institution's space requirement will actually grow in future years due to such 
new activities as the Butterfly House at NMNH — where plants must be 
grown without pesticides to protect the live butterflies — other operating 
efficiencies will enable the horticultural functions to stay within the same 
greenhouse square footage that they now occupy. The greenhouses will be 
built of a polycarbonate plastic material to reduce costs, and off-the-shelf 
prefabricated building kits will be used to reduce design requirements and 
expedite construction time. The Institution is using FY 2007 facilities planning 
and design funds to complete planning and concept design for the 
greenhouses, including selection of the site, and received $2.8 million in 
FY 2008 to complete the design and award a construction contract to replace 

243 



the greenhouses. The Smithsonian requests $8.2 million in FY 2009 to 
complete construction of the greenhouse complex in order to provide vital 
space for the orchid collection and growing space to support exhibit activities. 

PROGRESS TO DATE: 



The design is 65 percent complete, and final design documents are 
expected in April 2008. The Smithsonian expects to award the construction 
contract in July. The Institution is negotiating with AFRH's developer to 
finalize arrangements to stay at the present greenhouse site until greenhouse 
construction in Suitland is completed. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

Delay in funding this project will leave the Institution without a 
greenhouse facility when the AFRH turns the current complex over to its 
developer. As a result, the Institution will not be able to maintain its valuable 
orchid collection or provide interesting plantings in and around the 
monumental buildings on the National Mall without incurring significant 
additional operating costs such as leasing alternative space or buying a more 
limited selection of plant materials from commercial growers. 



244 



PROJECT TITLE: Gamboa Development: Replace Laboratory Facilities 
INSTALLATION: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) 
LOCATION: Panama 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): 

Replace Laboratory Facilities $3,000 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2008): $1,664* 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010): $11,000 

TOTAL $15,664 

* $1.5 million appropriated in FY 2008 to begin construction will be requested to be reprogrammed to design the new 
building. 

BACKGROUND: 



STRI is the principal U.S. organization devoted to research in tropical 
biology. Both scientific and human welfare depend on a continuing 
commitment to research in tropical biology for such things as finding untapped 
tropical resources to add to the important supply of food, pharmaceuticals, 
and fiber already supplied from the tropics, and to develop a better 
understanding of how to avoid further ecological catastrophes such as 
drought, starvation, and flooding caused by deforestation and overpopulation 
of tropical regions. 

STRI recently purchased 18 acres (formerly leased) from the Republic of 
Panama at a location in Gamboa. STRI also has custodianship of 156 acres of 
adjacent forest. Gamboa is the central location of STRI's terrestrial research 
and the departure point for the ferry ride to Barro Colorado Island (BCI) Nature 
Monument, another key research site over which STRI maintains 
custodianship. Gamboa is a unique location in that it is protected by 
geography from encroachment of civilization and pollution, and is adjacent to 
the 55,000-acre Soberania National Park, considered the most accessible 
moist forest in central and northern South America, where habitats and 
species are found that are not present at BCI. The availability of space, natural 
light, and the relative absence of air pollution have dramatically benefited 
STRI's experimental plant research program. This program and others like it 
are critical to understanding the role that tropical plants and soils play in global 
climate change models, and for enriching our knowledge of tropical 
biodiversity. 

PROJECT JUSTIFICATION : 

Future development at Gamboa will be further defined as part of the 
overall master plan for STRI, which is currently being updated. A key element 
of the plan will be to consolidate the Terrestrial Tropical Science program, 
from its current urban location to Gamboa, to take advantage of the excellent 
research conditions and more direct access to research sites. The research 

245 



staff, currently located at three sites and in four different buildings, will be 
relocated to the Gamboa campus. STRI administrative staff, currently located 
in three buildings, will be relocated to the Tupper Center at the edge of 
Panama City, which will permit STRI to demolish or transfer approximately 
48,000 square feet of old, expensive-to-maintain buildings in Panama City. 
This major consolidation will lead to an immediate improvement in 
administrative efficiency and will establish a critical mass of researchers in a 
single location, permitting improved flow of ideas and major equipment 
sharing, as well as shortening the distance to research sites. 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION : 

Anticipating the results of the master plan, the next step in developing 
the Gamboa site is the replacement of the Santa Cruz School to provide 
critical laboratory space for Terrestrial Tropical Science. The building has been 
unoccupied — and unoccupiable — for a number of years. A structural 
assessment determined that it would be more cost effective to replace the old 
facility with a comparably sized building made of concrete and/or steel, with 
low-maintenance, pest-free materials that meet the full requirements for use 
as a laboratory building. The Institution plans to construct a new building of 
approximately 53,000 square feet that will replace the space in the Santa 
Cruz School, as well as the space in other buildings in Gamboa and Panama 
City that STRI must return to the Republic of Panama. The new building will 
be slightly larger than the current space to accommodate the latest building 
codes and provide sufficient space for mechanical equipment. In addition to 
the building itself, the basic utilities infrastructure will need to be upgraded to 
support the building and future development of the site. Specific requirements 
include upgrading the potable water, storage system, and wastewater system; 
securing the perimeter; installing a backup generator and transformer; 
providing for parking and a driveway; and improving the site drainage system. 

For FY 2009, the Institution requests $3 million to begin construction of 
the schoolhouse replacement for use as laboratory space, which includes the 
upgrade of site utilities and infrastructure. The Smithsonian will request future 
funding for additional site development at Gamboa, as defined by the master 
plan, and to complete the laboratory facilities replacement. The Institution 
received $1.5 million in FY 2008 to begin demolition of the existing structure 
and site work to prepare for the construction of the new one. The Smithsonian 
plans to request to reprogram these funds to complete the design of the new 
building. 



246 



PROGRESS TO DATE : 

STRI has begun planning for the laboratory facilities, and is updating the 
earlier Facilities Master Plan to incorporate current requirements at Gamboa. 
In FY 2008, STRI will design the new building and the associated site 
infrastructure requirements, and expects to begin construction in FY 2009. 

IMPACT OF DELAY : 

A delay in developing the Gamboa site would hamper STRI's ability to 
consolidate terrestrial operations at Gamboa, with a resulting loss of research 
synergy and operational efficiency. 



247 



Other Revitalization Projects 

PROJECT TITLE: Upgrade Mansion Electric Distribution and Lighting 
INSTALLATION: Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 
LOCATION: New York City, New York 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $4,625 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Mansion's electrical distribution system is in poor 
condition, does not meet current electrical codes in most respects, and lacks 
flexibility and capacity to accommodate modern design exhibits. The lighting 
system dates from the 1970s and does not meet the needs of a modern museum. 
The distribution system will be replaced and upgraded as part of a major 
expansion of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's exhibit spaces. The lighting system 
will also be upgraded. Combining this work with the expansion project will allow 
the project to be performed economically, with minimal additional impact to 
Museum operations. 

PROJECT TITLE: Asbestos Abatement 

INSTALLATION: Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

LOCATION: New York City, New York 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $1,500 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: A 1 992 study documented the presence of asbestos- 
containing materials (ACM) in many areas of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. As part 
of a major expansion of the Museum's exhibit spaces, much work will be required 
through floors, in walls, and in other areas where ACMs are located. This project 
will provide for abatement of the asbestos encountered during the expansion. 
Combining this work with the expansion project will allow the project to be 
performed economically, with minimal additional impact to Museum operations. 

PROJECT TITLE: Replace Roof 
INSTALLATION: Freer Gallery of Art 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $1,275 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The roof on the Freer Gallery of Art was replaced in 
1 993 as part of the most recent major renovation of the facility. The roof is a 
four-ply, built-up, asphalt-bitumen roof with gravel ballast. The facilities 
assessment report prepared by the Smithsonian in 2001 found early signs of 
deterioration, and estimated seven years of remaining useful life. Recent 
assessments by building management staff have found accelerated deterioration 
and leaks into the attic. The project will replace the roof, and will repair/replace 
gutters and drains. Delay in execution of the project will result in worsening leaks 
that put valuable collections at risk. 

248 



PROJECT TITLE: Upgrade Humidification System 
INSTALLATION: Freer Gallery of Art 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $700 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION : The steam humidification system at the Freer Gallery 
has reached the end of its useful life. Several leaks in the building are attributed 
to the buildup of metals in the piping, which causes blockages, condensation of 
steam, and leakage at pipe joints. The leaks have endangered valuable collection 
items. The project will replace the existing steam supply with a steam-to-steam 
generator, which will provide steam without the metal impurities. Piping and 
humidifiers will also be replaced. Delay in this project will result in system failure 
and worsening leaks that put valuable collections at risk. 

PROJECT TITLE: Prevent Ground Water Infiltration into Lower Level 
INSTALLATION: National Museum of American History (NMAH) 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $2,900 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Because of its location in a high water table area, 
water infiltration into the NMAH is a major issue. The lower level slab was 
engineered to be a hydrostatic pressure slab. The 12-inch thick slab and the 
walls above grade have a continuous metallic-cement waterproof coating. 
However, over time moisture has seeped in through cracks and other 
penetrations in the floor and walls, and this condition is exacerbated in times 
of high precipitation. Many areas remain constantly wet and show evidence of 
deterioration. Furthermore, due to the topography of the site, the lower level is 
located two full stories below grade. The transition in grade is made by 
retaining walls that align with the south side of the service entrance, including 
the ramps to the loading dock and the original bus entrance and staff parking 
area. This project will correct water infiltration problems on the lower level 
slab, around pipe penetrations, walls, and ceilings, and will waterproof areas 
located below grade as well. Delaying this project will allow unsatisfactory and 
inadequate conditions to continue to inhibit the Museum's ability to perform 
its mission and could affect its collections and personnel activities. 

PROJECT TITLE: Connect to GSA Chilled Water System 
INSTALLATION: Quadrangle 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $1,500 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Quadrangle Building uses chilled water generated 
from a chiller plant on top of the Freer Gallery of Art for its HVAC needs. In 
2001, the Smithsonian signed an agreement with the GSA to obtain chilled water 

249 



for HVAC systems in museums on the south side of the Mall. All connections to 
the GSA system have been made, except for the Quadrangle. The Institution is 
paying an annual fee to GSA for the full amount of chilled water needed for all 
the South Mall museums, including the Quadrangle. This project will complete the 
connection of the GSA chilled water supply system to the Quadrangle's HVAC 
system. The chiller plant on the Freer Gallery's roof, redundant piping, and the 
equipment will all be removed. The estimated payback period for the project is 
three years. Delay in project execution will result in continued payments to GSA 
for chilled water that the Smithsonian will not able to use, and in increased 
maintenance outlays for repair of the failing chiller plant. 

PROJECT TITLE: Replace Museum Support Center Switchgear Controllers/ 

Switches 
INSTALLATION: Suitland Support Facility 
LOCATION: Suitland, Maryland 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $1,100 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The main electrical switchgear and controllers have 
outlived their useful life. The buss bars have pitted from frequent tripping, and are 
corroded and spalled to the point of being unsafe and unreliable. The associated 
controllers have been undependable for the past several years. Replacement parts 
are no longer available, forcing staff to make temporary modifications in many 
areas to keep the system operating. 

PROJECT TITLE: Install Backflow Prevention in Washington, DC Buildings 
INSTALLATION: Multiple Locations 
LOCATION: Washington, DC 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $2,100 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC 
WASA) helped to pass legislation in 2001 that requires reduced pressure zone 
(RPZ) preventers at each building's potable water service entrance. These 
preventers guard public health and safety by protecting potable water from 
contaminants and pollutants through cross-connection. In June 2001, DC WASA 
cited deficiencies at all cross-connections at Smithsonian buildings in Washington, 
DC and Suitland, Maryland, and issued a notice stating that corrections should be 
completed as soon as possible. Backflow preventers have been installed in the Arts 
and Industries Building. The Institution will install preventers on remaining buildings 
in Washington, DC and Suitland, Maryland in multiple phases as funds are made 
available. The work in some locations will also require the upgrade of fire and 
domestic water pumps where installation of backflow preventers affects the water 
pressure. Failure to install the backflow preventers risks contamination of the 
potable water sources and may endanger public health. 



250 



PROJECT TITLE: Construction Supervision and Administration 
INSTALLATION: Multiple Locations 
LOCATION: Institution-wide 

FY 2009 COST ESTIMATE (Thousands of Dollars): $4,950 

PRIOR-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2008) : $4,900 

FUTURE-YEAR FUNDING (FY 2010): $5,100 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: This request includes staff costs for permanent 
construction management staff required to supervise and administer construction 
contracts, as well as term and temporary staff required to perform specialized work 
associated with revitalization projects. A total of 48 FTEs will be funded from the 
$5 million. Forty-three of the 48 FTEs are construction management engineers and 
will cost approximately $4.4 million in FY 2009. The engineers directly supervise 
construction contractors to ensure that quality work is performed safely. In 
addition, they resolve issues that arise during construction, negotiate change 
orders, approve payments, and perform other administrative functions as 
contracting officer's technical representatives (COTRs). These necessary "owner 
functions" are critical to ensure that quality work is completed safely, on time, and 
within budget. 

This request also funds five contract specialists who will support all aspects 
of the procurement process for acquiring the necessary contract services to 
execute the Capital Program. These five positions will cost approximately 
$600,000 in FY 2009, and will provide essential expertise to ensure the timely 
award of planning, design, and construction contracts for the Capital Program. 



251 



FACILITIES PLANNING AND DESIGN 

Feasibility studies, needs assessments, and design for capital projects are 
required before work can take place. Resources in this category include all costs 
for contract facility master planning, preliminary and final design for all 
revitalization and construction projects, special studies, and a small amount for 
facility engineering, capital leveraging, and research activities, similar to 
operations at the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA). The funding will enable development of project 
baselines, including costs, scope, and schedule, prior to receiving funds to 
perform the work. 

In order to plan and design ahead of Capital Program execution, funding 
of about 10 to 15 percent of the following year's program is required each year. 
The funding requested for FY 2009 will provide necessary planning and design 
to at least the 35 percent stage for most projects included in the planned 
FY 201 1 program, and will complete designs for projects planned for FY 2010. 
This will move the Institution closer to meeting the National Academy of Public 
Administration's (NAPA) recommendation that firm baselines be established 
before funding requests to provide more accurate cost estimates and to enable 
timely award of construction contracts upon receipt of future-year funding. 

The Institution requests a total of $23,500,000 for planning and design in 
FY 2009. These funds will be used to design several major revitalization 
projects (at the National Museum of Natural History, the National Museum of 
American History, the National Zoological Park, and for anti-terrorism projects at 
multiple locations) as well as to prepare designs for numerous smaller 
revitalization projects. This budget request will also enable the Smithsonian to 
begin design of the new National Museum of African American History and 
Culture; design the Mathias Laboratory Modules at the Smithsonian 
Environmental Research Center; and prepare comprehensive facilities master 
planning studies to guide future facilities decisions and other studies to ensure 
the most effective use of existing space. 

If these essential resources are not provided, the Institution will be unable 
to proceed with vital planning and design activities to ensure the successful 
execution of the long-range Capital Program. The result will be a significant 
delay in meeting the Institution's goals to return Smithsonian facilities to full 
functionality in the next decade. 



252 



LEGACY FUND 



FY 2008 Appropriation 


$14,766,000 


FY 2009 Estimate 






STRATEGIC GOAL: ENHANCED MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE 
Federal Resource Summary by Performance Objective and Program Category 



Performance Objective/ 
Program Category 


FY 2008 


FY 2009 


FTE 


$000 


FTE 


$000 


Enhanced Management Excellence 










Facilities 










Execute an aggressive, long-range 
revitalization program and limited 
construction of new facilities 





14,766 








Total 





14,766 









BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 

The Legacy Fund was established by Congress in 2008 in Public Law 
110-161 to provide a means to address the Smithsonian Institution's backlog 
of major repair and restoration of its facilities. The Fund was designed as a 
public-private partnership, in which each federal dollar provided must be 
matched by twice that amount in private contributions before the full 
$15 million is made available for obligation. The Smithsonian is developing 
plans to raise the matching private funds. No funds are requested in FY 2009. 



253 



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255 



VISITS TO THE SMITHSONIAN 
FY 2003-FY 2007 



MUSEUM 


FY 2003 


FY 2004 


FY 2005 


FY 2006 


FY 2007 


MALL 












SI Castle 


1,126,752 


1,423,028 


1,355,147 


1,202,611 


1,580,962 


A&l Building 1 


841,019 


250,743 


3,564 








Natural History 


5,568,532 


4,542,979 


5,491,602 


5,561,758 


7,285,149 


Air and Space/ 


10,800,305 


4,586,088 


6,113,032 


5,045,712 


5,942,353 


Silver Hill 2 












American Indian 3 





112,097 


2,468,524 


1,620,692 


1,822,087 


Freer Gallery 


308,839 


360,231 


322,175 


420,319 


564,178 


Sackler Gallery 


163,251 


186,939 


147,089 


223,958 


318,792 


African Art 


166,271 


169,941 


156,538 


192,845 


290,727 


Ripley Center 


249,819 


184,679 


193,995 


233,226 


278,672 


American History 4 


2,720,327 


2,848,114 


3,064,083 


2,874,640 





Hirshhorn 


625,580 


668,132 


715,836 


749,313 


743,126 


OFF MALL 












DW Reynolds 











274,840 


787,648 


Center (AA/PG) 5 












Renwick 


173,818 


134,035 


133,608 


165,103 


122,801 


Anacostia 


28,353 


22,017 


24,098 


42,805 


38,288 


Cooper-Hewitt 


141,545 


141,548 


143,303 


186,628 


226,998 


American Indian 6 


290,220 


250,738 


304,100 


233,696 


275,542 


National Zoo 


1,724,228 


1,878,823 


1,854,423 


2,480,967 


2,843,018 


Postal 


300,318 


347,228 


463,070 


439,048 


365,180 


Udvar-Hazy 





1,490,750 


1,260,971 


1,019,885 


1,069,398 


Center 7 












TOTAL 


25,229,177 


19,598,110 


24,215,158 


22,968,046 


24,554,919 



The Arts and Industries (A&l) Building closed to the general public in January 2004. However, the 
Discovery Theater continued performances until November 2004 when theater operations were 
relocated to the Ripley Center. 

Installation of magnetometers in October 2003 resulted in more accurate visitor counts at NASM. 

3 

The National Museum of the American Indian opened to the public in September 2004. 
The National Museum of American History closed to the public in September 2006. 
5 Closed to the public January 2000 through June 2006. Reopened in July 2006. 

Includes the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and the Cultural Resources Center in 
Suitland, Maryland. 
The Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles opened to the public in December 2003. 



256 



TRUST FUNDS 

In addition to support provided by federal appropriations, the 
Smithsonian Institution receives trust funds to expand and enrich its 
programs. The following provides an overview of all sources of funding. 

The Institution's trust funds include general trust funds with limited or 
no restrictions on their use, designated funds restricted by the donor or 
sponsor, and Government grants and contracts. Projections are subject to the 
uncertainty of the size of donations, grants, and contracts; to fluctuations in 
visitor attendance; and to the volatility of the economy, which directly affects 
the return on the endowment and donor giving, as well as restaurant, 
catalogue, and museum shop revenues, memberships, and other business 
activities. The Institution's gross operating revenue, less the expenses of the 
auxiliary activities, represents the net operating revenue available for 
programmatic and related purposes. The following table summarizes the 
sources of trust operating funds. 



(Dollars in Millions) 


FY 2007 
Actual 


FY 2008 
Estimate 


General Trust 


73.7 


62.6 


Donor/Sponsor-Designated 


198.2 


111.6 


Government Grants and Contracts 


104.1 


105.6 


Total Available for Operations 


$376.0 


$279.8 



SOURCE AND APPLICATION OF TRUST FUNDS - The following sections 
describe the sources of each category of trust funds as well as a general 
account of how they are used. 

General Trust Funds — The sources of general trust funds are 
investment income; earnings from unrestricted endowments; net proceeds 
from the museum shops, catalogue, and food service concessions; sales of 
Smithsonian books, records, and other products based on designs and 
objects in the collections; theater/planetarium operations at the National Air 
and Space Museum and the Samuel C. Johnson IMAX Theater in the 
National Museum of Natural History; rental of exhibitions of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service; membership programs (including 
Smithsonian and Air and Space magazines); the sale of posters, exhibition 
brochures, catalogues, and other publications; and admission fees. Projected 
sources of FY 2008 general trust funds total $62,600,000. These funds are 
used to support administrative programs such as central management, legal 
counsel, accounting, personnel, contracting, and budget, as well as 
education, research and public programs, scholarly studies, and exhibitions. 



257 



Donor/Sponsor-Designated Funds — Designated trust funds include 
gifts, grants, and earnings on endowments from individuals, foundations, 
organizations, and corporations that specify the purpose of the funds. 
Designated funds in FY 2008 are projected to total $111 ,600,000. 
Generally, these funds support a particular exhibition or program, or are used 
to manage the Smithsonian collections and/or support research projects. 

Government Grants and Contracts — Various Government agencies 
and departments provide grants and contracts for projects that only the 
Smithsonian can manage because of its expertise in a particular area of 
science, history, art, or education, and because of its ability to respond 
quickly to certain needs. For FY 2008, Government grants and contracts are 
projected to be $105,600,000. Of this amount, $86,500,000 is provided for 
astrophysical research and development carried out by the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory. 



258 



APPROPRIATION LANGUAGE AND CITATIONS 



The Act of August 1 0, 1 846, 9 Stat. 1 02-1 06, 20 U.S. C. § § 41 -70, 
established the Smithsonian Institution "for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge," and provided the organizational structure for the Institution's 
administration. The mission of the Smithsonian Institution has remained 
unchanged throughout its 1 60-year history, although additional authority for 
many of the Institution's programs and operations has been enacted over the 
years. Those statutes, along with the Smithsonian charter, are cited below 
as the authority for the Smithsonian Institution FY 2008 appropriation 
language, except where specific authorizing language has been included in 
the wording of the appropriation itself. 

Appropriation: Salaries and Expenses 

1 . For necessary expenses of the Smithsonian Institution, as authorized 
by law, including research in the fields of art, science, and history; 

20 U.S.C.§§ 50, 53a, 69, 75b(b), 76bb(c), 77a, 78, 80a(a), 
80m, 80q-1 (b)(1), (3) provide that (1) "...all objects of art and of 
foreign and curious research, and all objects of natural history, 
plants, and geological and mineralogical specimens. ..shall be so 
arranged and classified. ..as best to facilitate the examination 
and study of them..." (2) "Appropriations are authorized 
for. ..the making of solar observations at high altitudes..." 
(3) "The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution is hereby 
authorized. ..to continue independently or in cooperation 
anthropological researches among the American Indians and the 
natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the 
United States..." (4) "The Gallery [National Portrait Gallery] shall 
function as a free public museum for the exhibition and study of 
portraiture and statuary depicting men and women who have 
made significant contributions to the history, development, and 
culture of the people of the United States and of the artists who 
created such portraiture and statuary." (5) "The Joseph H. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. ..shall be used for the 
storage, exhibition, and study of works of art..." (6) "The 
national air and space museum shall. ..provide educational 
material for the historical study of aviation and space flight." 
(7) "The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution is authorized 
to cooperate with any State, educational institution, or scientific 
organization in the United States for continuing paleontological 
investigations..." (8) "It shall be equipped with a study center 



259 



for scholarly research into the meaning of war, its effect on 
civilization, and the role of the armed forces..." (9) "...the Board 
may. ..conduct programs of research and education (in the 
Museum of African Art). .."(10) The purposes of the National 
Museum [of the American Indian] are to (1) advance the study 
of Native Americans, including the study of language, literature, 
history, art, anthropology, and life. ..(3) provide for Native 
American research and study programs. 

development, preservation, and documentation of the National 
Collections; 

20 U.S.C.§§ 50, 50a, 59, 69, 75e, 76c, 76cc(a), 77a, 80a, 
80m, 80q-1 (b)(2), 81 provide that (1 ) "...all objects of art and 
of foreign and curious research, and all objects of natural 
history, plants, and geological and mineralogical 
specimens... shall be delivered to such persons as may be 
authorized by the Board of Regents to receive them, and shall 
be so arranged and classified. ..as best to facilitate the 
examination and study of them..." (2) "The Smithsonian 
Institution is authorized to include in its estimates of 
appropriations such sums as may be needful for the 
preservation and maintenance of the John Gellatly art 
collection." (3) "All collections of rocks, minerals, soils, fossils, 
and objects of natural history, archaeology, and 
ethnology. ..when no longer needed for investigations in 
progress shall be deposited in the National Museum." (4) "The 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution is hereby 
authorized. ..to continue independently or in cooperation. ..the 
excavation and preservation of archaeological remains." (5) 
"...the Board may - (1) purchase, accept, borrow, or otherwise 
acquire portraiture, statuary, and other items for preservation, 
exhibition, or study." (6) "...the Regents are authorized. ..to 
acquire (by purchase or otherwise) and sell contemporary works 
of art or copies thereof..." (7) "There is established in the 
Smithsonian Institution a Board of Trustees. ..which shall have 
the sole authority (i) to purchase or otherwise acquire. ..works of 
art for the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden..." (8) "The national air and space museum 
shall. ..collect, preserve, and display aeronautical and space 
flight equipment of historical interest and significance..." (9) 
"...the Smithsonian Institution shall collect, preserve, and 
exhibit military objects of historical interest and significance." 
(10) "...the Board may purchase, accept, borrow or otherwise 



260 



acquire additional works of art or any other real or personal 
property for the Museum (of African Art); preserve, maintain, 
restore. ..or otherwise hold any property of whatsoever nature 
acquired..." (1 1) "The purposes of the National Museum [of the 
American Indian] are to. ..(2) collect, preserve, and exhibit 
Native American objects of artistic, historical, literary, 
anthropological, and scientific interest..." (12) "The National 
Zoological Park is placed under the direction of the Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution, who are authorized to transfer to it 
any living specimens, whether of animals or plants, in their 
charge, to accept gifts for the park... to make exchanges of 
specimens..." 

presentation of public exhibits and performances; 

20 U.S.C.§§ 75b(b), 76c(b), 76bb(c), 77a, 80a(a), 80m(a), 
80q-1(b) provide that (1) "The Gallery [National Portrait Gallery] 
shall function as a free public museum for the exhibition and 
study of portraiture and statuary..." (2) "In order to encourage 
the development of contemporary art and to effect the widest 
distribution and cultivation in matters of such art, the Regents 
are authorized to. ..conduct exhibitions..." (3) "The Joseph H. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. ..shall be used for the 
storage, exhibition, and study of works of art..." (4) "The 
national air and space museum shall. ..collect, preserve, and 
display aeronautical and space flight equipment of historical 
interest and significance..." (5) "...the Smithsonian Institution 
shall collect, preserve, and exhibit military objects of historical 
interest and significance." (6) "...the Board may. ..display. ..any 
property of whatsoever nature acquired (for the Museum of 
African Art)..." (7) "The purposes of the National Museum [of 
the American Indian] are to. ..(2) collect, preserve, and exhibit 
Native American objects of artistic, historical, literary, 
anthropological, and scientific interest..." 

collection, preparation, dissemination, and exchange of information 
and publications; 

20 U.S.C.§ 53a provides that "Appropriations are authorized for 
the. ..preparation of manuscripts, drawings, and illustrations for 
publication." 



261 



conduct of education, training, and museum assistance programs; 

20 U.S.C. § 65a provides "The Director of the National Museum 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution shall - (1) cooperate with museums and their 
professional organizations in a continuing study of museum 
problems and opportunities, both in the United States and 
abroad;... (2) prepare and distribute significant museum 
publications; (3) perform research on, and otherwise contribute 
to, the development of museum techniques...." 

20 U.S.C. § 77a provides that "The national air and space 
museum shall. ..provide educational material for the historical 
study of aviation and space flight." 

20 U.S.C. § 79a provides that "The purpose of setting aside 
such an area [Barro Colorado Island] is to preserve and conserve 
its natural features. ..thus providing a place where duly qualified 
students can make observations and scientific investigations for 
increase of knowledge, under such conditions and regulations as 
may be prescribed by the Smithsonian Institution." 

20 U.S.C. § 79e provides that "There are authorized to be 
appropriated annually. ..such sums as are necessary for the 
administration of [the Canal Zone Biological Area] for the 
maintenance of laboratory or other facilities..." 

The Panama Canal Treaty and ancillary agreements vest in the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute responsibility to serve 
as custodian of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument. The 
Panama Canal Act of 1979, Public Law 96-70, as amended, 
implements the provisions of the Panama Canal Treaty. 

20 U.S.C. § 80m(a) provides that "...the Board [of Regents] 
may... (3) conduct programs of research and education (in the 
Museum of African Art)...." 

maintenance, alteration, operation, lease (for terms not to exceed 30 
years), and protection of buildings, facilities, and approaches; 

20 U.S.C.§§ 53a, 76g, 76ee, 79b, 80m, 81 provide that 
respectively, (1) "Appropriations are authorized for the 
maintenance of the Astrophysical Observatory and. ..for repairs 
and alterations of buildings and grounds occupied by the 



262 



Smithsonian Institution in the District of Columbia and 
elsewhere..." (2) "There are authorized to be appropriated 
annually such sums as may be necessary to maintain and 
administer the Gallery [National Portrait Gallery]..." (3) "There is 
authorized to be appropriated. ..such additional sums as may be 
necessary for the maintenance and operation of such 
[Hirshhorn] [M]useum and [SJculpture [G]arden." (4) "The 
Smithsonian Institution shall. ..be responsible for the 
construction and maintenance of laboratory and other facilities 
on the area provided for the use of students authorized to carry 
on studies within the confines of the area..." (5) "...the Board 
may. ..preserve, maintain. ..any property of whatsoever nature 
acquired (for the Museum of African Art)..." (6)"The National 
Zoological Park is placed under the direction of the Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution, who are authorized. ..to administer 
and improve the said Zoological Park for the advancement of 
science and the instruction and recreation of the people." 
Public Law 101-512 making appropriations for the Department 
of the Interior and Related Agencies for the fiscal year 1 991 
extended the maximum term for leases from ten years to thirty 
years. 

7. not to exceed $ for services as authorized by 5 U.S.C. 3109; 

5 U.S.C. § 3109 provides that "When authorized by an 
appropriation or other statute, the head of an agency may 
procure by contract the temporary (not in excess of 1 year) or 
intermittent services of experts or consultants or an 
organization thereof, including stenographic reporting services." 

8. up to 5 replacement passenger vehicles; 

31 U.S.C. § 1343 provides that "(b) An appropriation may be 
expended to buy or lease passenger motor vehicles only-- (1) for 
the use of-. ..or, (2) as specifically provided by law." 

9. purchase, rental, repair, and cleaning of uniforms for employees, 

5 U.S.C. § 5901 provides that "(a) There is authorized to be 
appropriated annually to each agency of the Government of the 
United States, ...on a showing of necessity or desirability, such 
sums as may be necessary to carry out this subchapter. The 
head of the agency concerned. ..shall- (1) furnish to each of 
these employees a uniform at a cost not to exceed $400 a 



263 



year. ..or (2) pay to each of these employees a allowance for a 
uniform not to exceed $400 a year..." 

40 U.S.C.§ 1 93t provides that "The special police provided for 
in section 1 93n of this title [Smithsonian Institution]. ..may be 
furnished, without charge, with uniforms and such other 
equipment as may be necessary for the proper performance of 
their duties..." 

10. $ , of which not to exceed $ for the 

instrumentation program, collections acquisition, exhibition 
reinstallation, the National Museum of African American History and 
Culture, and the repatriation of skeletal remains program shall remain 

available until expended; and of which $ for fellowships and 

scholarly awards shall remain available until September 30, 2009, 

Wording added by the Congress in Public Law 100-446 making 
appropriations for the Department of the Interior and related 
agencies for the fiscal year 1989 to permit the Institution to 
establish no-year funding within the Salaries and Expenses 
account for the development of major scientific instrumentation. 
Public Law 101-512, making appropriations for the Department 
of the Interior and Related Agencies for the fiscal year 1 991 , 
allowed no-year funding to be used for purchases for museum 
collections; the design, production, and reinstallation of museum 
exhibitions; and the repatriation of skeletal remains. Public Law 
108-447 making appropriations for the Department of the 
Interior and Related Agencies for fiscal year 2005 allowed no- 
year funding for the National Museum of African American 
History and Culture. Public Law 108-108 making appropriations 
for the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies for 
fiscal year 2004 established two-year funding for fellowships 
and scholarly research awards. 

31 U.S.C.§ 1301(c) provides "An appropriation in a regular, 
annual appropriation law may be construed to be permanent or 
available continuously only if the appropriation ... (2) expressly 
provides that it is available after the fiscal year covered by the 
law in which it appears." 

1 1 . and including such funds as may be necessary to support American 
overseas research centers: 



264 



Wording added by the Congress in Public Law 99-190 making 
appropriations for the Department of Interior and Related 
Agencies in 1 986. 

12. Provided, That funds appropriated herein are available for advance 

payments to independent contractors performing research services or 
participating in official Smithsonian presentations. 

31 U.S.C.§ 3324 provides that "(b) An advance of public 
money may be made only if it is authorized by-- (1) a specific 
appropriation or other law..." 

Appropriation: Facilities Capital 

1 . For necessary expenses of repair, revitalization, and alteration of 
facilities owned or occupied by the Smithsonian Institution, by 
contract or otherwise, as authorized by section 2 of the Act of August 
22, 1949 (63 Stat. 623), 

Act of August 22, 1949 (63 Stat. 623), 20 U.S.C.§ 53a, 
provides that "Appropriations are authorized. ..for repairs and 
alterations of buildings and grounds occupied by the 
Smithsonian Institution in the District of Columbia and 
elsewhere..." 

20 U.S.C.§ 81 provides that "The National Zoological Park is 
placed under the direction of the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, who are authorized. ..to administer and improve the 
said Zoological Park for the advancement of science and the 
instruction and recreation of the people." 

Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations 
Act, 2004, (Public Law 108-108) established the Facilities 
Capital appropriation. The appropriation includes activities 
formerly financed through the Repair, Restoration and Alteration 
of Facilities appropriation and the Construction appropriation. 

2. and for construction, 

20 U.S.C. § 53a provides that "Appropriations are 
authorized. ..for repairs and alterations of buildings and grounds 
occupied by the Smithsonian Institution in the District of 
Columbia and elsewhere..." 



265 



3. including necessary personnel, 

Wording added by Congress in Department of Interior and 
Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2003, (Public Law 108-7) 
for clarification. 

4. $ to remain available until expended, 

31 U.S.C.§ 1301 provides "An appropriation in a regular, annual 
appropriation law may be construed to be permanent or 
available continuously only if the appropriation ... (2) expressly 
provides that it is available after the fiscal year covered by the 
law in which it appears." 

5. of which not to exceed $ is for services as authorized by 

5 U.S.C. 3109: 

5 U.S.C. § 3109 provides that "When authorized by an 
appropriation or other statute, the head of an agency may 
procure by contract the temporary (not in excess of 1 year) or 
intermittent services of experts or consultants or an 
organization thereof, including stenographic reporting services." 

Appropriation: Legacy Fund 

1 . For major restoration, renovation, and rehabilitation of existing 
Smithsonian facilities, 

Act of August 22, 1949 (63 Stat. 623), 20 U.S.C. § 53a, 
provides that "Appropriations are authorized. ..for repairs and 
alterations of buildings and grounds occupied by the 
Smithsonian Institution in the District of Columbia and 
elsewhere..." 

20 U.S.C. § 81 provides that "The National Zoological Park is 
placed under the direction of the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, who are authorized. ..to administer and improve the 
said Zoological Park for the advancement of science and the 
instruction and recreation of the people." 

2. $ to remain available until expended: 

31 U.S.C. § 1301 provides "An appropriation in a regular, annual 
appropriation law may be construed to be permanent or 



266 



available continuously only if the appropriation ... (2) expressly 
provides that it is available after the fiscal year covered by the 
law in which it appears." 



3. Provided, that funds shall be only available after being matched by no 
less than $ in private donations, which shall not include in- 
kind contributions: 

Wording added in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 to 
establish the Legacy Fund as a matching fund for private 
contributions. 

20 U.S.C.§§ 55, provides that "...such sums as the Regents 
may, from time to time, see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with 
the original bequest, ...This shall not operate as a limitation on 
the power of the Smithsonian Institution to receive money or 
other property by gift, bequest, or devise, and to hold and 
dispose of the same in promotion of the purposes thereof." 

20 U.S.C.§§ 56, provides that "The Regents are authorized to 
make such disposal of any other moneys which have accrued, 
or shall hereafter accrue, as interest upon the Smithsonian fund, 
not herein appropriated, or not required for the purposes herein 
provided, as they shall deem best suited for the promotion of 
the purpose of the testator." 

4. Provided further, That none of the funds made available under this 
heading or any required matching funds shall be used for day-to-day 
maintenance, general salaries and expenses, or programmatic 
purposes. 

Wording added in Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 for 
further clarification. 



267 





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